Counting Dead Trans People

No, Angela Crawley, in the UK, it’s not the same and it’s not a greater risk

In the Women and Equalities Select Committee on reform of the Gender Recognition Act on 21 April 2021, Angela Crawley, Scottish National Party MP for Lanark and Hamilton East and the SNP Shadow Attorney General asked

” Would you agree, and I think we can all agree on the prevalence of male violence, and the instance of how often this occurs and often it is a male perpetrator against a female individual, would you agree that individuals who perhaps, perhaps a trans female has transitioned*, they are also at equally and perhaps greater risk of the same violence and the same issues that you’ve expressed around patriarchy. Would it be possible for a women’s refuge to have a policy that is both inclusive provides that safety that provides those single sex spaces built also is able to provide a service that recognises that individuals who are transgender may also be the victims of the very same violence and they might also need protection from those very similar services that we’re discussing.”

(*It’s anyone’s guess who she means here? A trans female who has transitioned surely means female to ‘transman’, but I think she is so determined not to use words referring to maleness for ‘transwomen’ that she means a male who has so-called transitioned to ‘transwoman.’)

Firstly, let’s get this out of the way, you cannot be both single sex and trans inclusive, unless you mean women and ‘transmen’ together or men with ‘transwomen’. If you have transwomen in a women’s refuge it is not single sex. It cannot be.

Angela Crawley seemed to be trying to say that trans people are perhaps more at risk from the same men’s violence as women are.  This isn’t true with regards to fatal violence. Men’s fatal violence against males who identify as transgender does not follow the same pattern as men’s fatal violence against women.

As far as I know, nine males who fall under the trans umbrella have been killed in the UK since 2009. I don’t know which of them would have described themselves as cross-dressers, transsexuals, transwomen, trans women, or even say that they are women but using Stonewall’s concept of the trans umbrella, there are nine and I don’t want to open myself to accusations of undercounting. There have been over 1,800 women killed by men in the UK in the same time.  These 9 people are

  1. Andrea Waddel, 29, killed by a punter (sex buyer), Neil McMillan, in Brighton in October 2009
  2. Destiny Lauren, 29, killed by a punter (sex buyer) Leon Fyle, in London in November 2009
  3. David/Sonia Burgess, 63, killed by Senthooran (Nina) Kanagasingham, a trans friend/associate (male who identified as trans at the time), in London in October 2010
  4. Lionel/Suzie Morl, 49, referred to in the press as a transvestite, who was killed by a couple with drug problems and who appear to have been exploiting him:  David Hardman, 51, and Tracey Hurrell,  32, in Manchester in July or August 2011. Note the age difference between this couple, which is often (not always) an indicator of an abusive relationship
  5. Chrissie Azzopardi, 22, who was killed by a neighbour, Romy Maynard, possibly over drug debts, in London in April 2012
  6. Vanessa Santillan, 33, who was killed by husband Joaquin Hernandez in London in March 2015
  7. William Lound, 30, a gay man who occasionally wore clothes that have been described as women’s clothes, was killed by Lee Arnold. Arnold killed Lound after the two had had sex, in Salford in August 2016. The murder of William Lound has been described both as a homophobic murder and an anti-trans one
  8. Naomi Hersi, 36, who was killed by punter (sex buyer) Jesse McDonald after a drugs and sex hook-up in London in March 2018
  9. Amy Griffiths, 51, was killed by Martin Saberi, in Worcestershire on 11 January 2019. The two have been described as friends.

None of those above were killed in Scotland, where Angela Crawley is an MP. None. Since 2009, at least 129 women have been killed by men in Scotland. 17 women have been killed by men in Scotland since the last known murder of a trans person in the UK. Why can’t you see or why do you turn your back on the violence done to women by men, Angela?

We know from the Femicide Census that 62% of women who were killed by men between 2009 and 2018 were killed by a current or former partner.  In the year ending March 2020, the Office for National Statistics says that 46% of adult females and 7% of males were killed in domestic homicides. The ONS also said that 29% of female homicide victims recorded no suspect had been charged for the offence at the time of analysis. This will decrease as investigations proceed and the percentage of cases where a woman’s current or former partner is identified as being responsible for her death is likely to increase.  The proportion of males killed by current or former partners is consistent with previous years. 8% of male homicide victims were killed by a partner in the year ending March 2019, 1% in the year ending March 2018 and 3% in the year ending March 2017. Note also that males are much more likely to be killed by a same sex partner, fatal violence is very rare in lesbian relationships.

Given the number of trans people killed in the UK, annual trends in the composition of their relationships with their killer isn’t possible. There have been nine over eleven years and none since Amy Griffiths in 2019. Only one was killed by their partner.  Most women’s refuges work exclusively with women who are fleeing partners, ex-partners and in some cases, family members. That doesn’t mean other people don’t need places of safety or support but it does mean that their experiences are different and their needs are too. Women in refuges benefit from being able to place what was done to them in the context of the abuse that other women have been subjected to by men they loved. Sometimes it is through seeing that another woman was not to blame for what was done to her that they are able to begin to stop blaming themselves. Sharing with and listening to other women is a huge part of healing and moving on. Women don’t enter refuges for fun. For most there is no other choice and many are in fear of their life. The number of men who kill or attempt to kill their female partners shows that women’s fears are well grounded. I’ve written in other places about the importance of single-sex spaces for women who have been subjected to men’s violence, for example here, about the necessity of trauma informed services for women being single sex and here, more generally in a speech I delivered in Scottish Parliament in January 2020.

Looking beyond fatal violence and at childhood sexual abuse, prevalence is not equal or greater for males who identify as transgender than it is for females. We know that both girls and boys can be subjected to child sexual abuse and that grooming of younger gay males by older men is an established form of abuse normalised by some men. Prevalence studies for England and Wales suggests that approximately 15% of girls/young women and 5% boys/young men are subjected to some form of sexual abuse before they are 16 years old and that the majority of perpetrators – prevalence studies always indicate over 90% – are male.[1] For women and girls, single sex space to address what has been done to them is vital. For males, who are far more likely to have been abused by someone of the same sex, the preferred or most beneficial sex of their therapist, counsellor, support worker or fellow therapeutic group members can be less clear. Sometimes but not always depending on the sex of their abuser, they may or may not have a preference for or therapeutic issues with the sex of who supports them.[2] The needs of these men should be addressed but this necessary provision should not affect the needs of the majority of female victim-survivors and provision of single sex services to meet their needs; neither should the support and therapeutic needs of males survivors of childhood sexual violence and abuse who come to identify as transgender.

It should not be seen as, and it is not, an indication of disrespect to Andrea Waddel, Destiny Lauren, Sonia Burgess, Suzie Morl, Chrissie Azzopardi, Vanessa Santilan, William Lound, Naomi Hersi and Amy Griffiths to say that with regards to intimate partner homicide, the pattern of their relationships with the person who killed them is far closer to that of male-on-male fatal violence than that of men’s lethal violence against women. Of course what was done to them is abhorrent. But, the evidence suggests that the same services as those under short supply for women would not have saved the lives of most of these trans people.

By identifying the context of the sex industry, which inherently abusive; or substance use, I am not excusing what was done to these people any more than I would consider involvement in prostitution or drug use as an excuse for killing women, or any more than I would hold any woman responsible for abuse perpetrated against her. Prostitution turns people into products and abusive, predatory men who fully recognise the power imbalance in the transaction, into consumers. Prostitution puts people, mainly women, in situations where they are easy prey to murderous men. It is the twisted logic of sex trade advocates that creates a space for victim blaming and denies that prostitution is abuse.

Where fatal violence is concerned, the evidence is that the violence perpetrated against trans people, is not the same violence as that which is perpetrated against women. It’s not the same, it might be proportionate, there aren’t reliable statistics on the number of trans identifying people in the UK so we can’t calculate. Of course not all violence and abuse is fatal, but we can still learn a lot about violence from that which is. It is possible that rates of fatal violence against trans people by men are higher than those of males against women if we take population sizes into account, but this would make that violence more in line with men’s violence against other men, after all men kill more men every year than they kill women. This does not justify removing the single sex exemptions permissible under the Equality Act in the provision of services for women who have been subjected to men’s violence and more than any other form of men’s violence against other men.

Like most people, I do not want to see trans people suffering violence, harassment and discrimination. Universal human rights are an important principle. If we want to stop violence, including fatal violence against trans people, we would be better placed addressing the drivers of violence and abuse of people who do not conform to the gender stereotypes associated with their sex. As a feminist, I would say that we would be better placed dismantling sex-role or gendered stereotypes. Being abused and/or killed as or because you are a gender non-conforming man is not the same as being abused and/or killed as or because you are a women. We help no one if we don’t acknowledge who is doing what to whom and why, or by falsely claiming that that violence against trans people is the same as men’s violence against women.

Is it enough if a person in a position of responsibility apologises for an offensive joke?

Steve Reddy Liverpool Domestic Abuse Strategic Lead and mother-in-law jokes about women’s suspicious deaths

Steve Reddy, Director of Liverpool City Council Children & Young People Services and Domestic Abuse Strategic Lead tweeted the following ‘joke’:

“Friday [clown face emoji]. Mrs R still angry with me because I didn’t open the car door to help her mother out. But as I’ve said – I just panicked and swam to the surface! Compounded this somewhat by the wreath I ordered in the shape of a lifebelt – but it’s what she would have wanted…” (9 April 2021)

Angela Clarke, on twitter Angela Madigan, Liverpool City Council Domestic Abuse and Domestic Homicide Review Commissioner doesn’t seem to think so, if her response: “Back with a vengeance“ is anything to go by. And to which Reddy ‘oh-so-humorously’ responded “Cheers mate, I did it again.”

Liverpool’s independent specialist domestic abuse service, (LDAS), didn’t share the amusement and asked the Chair of the domestic abuse strategy group why he was using Bernard Manning humour about women dying.

After trying to justify himself, Reddy replaced the subject of his joke with his father-in-law, before also deleting this second version, shortly after he said that he apologised unreservedly for any offence caused, it was absolutely not his intention.

Mother-in-law jokes are or were a misogynistic trope of the UK mainstream cultural fabric. They position younger men as normative and socially valuable, whilst positioning older women as the antithesis to this, disdainful and other, whilst reminding younger women of their destiny as disposable objects of ridicule with patriarchal best-before dates and signalling to younger heterosexual men that they should be wary of what their female partner may become. As LDAS pointed out, mother-in-law jokes belong in the dustbin of entertainment from the 1970s when sexist, racist humour was a lazy prop for sexist racist comedians like Manning.  But the stereotype endures.

The Femicide Census found that 13 women in the UK had been killed by the partner or ex-partner of their daughter between 2009 and 2018, (in other words, 13 men killed women who were or had been their mother-in-law or equivalent), just over one percent of all women killed by men in the UK. More extreme than mother-in-law jokes, certainly, but not unconnected. Societal norms and values can either create a conducive context for men’s violence against women or they can challenge and deconstruct. Mother-in-law jokes in particular and the normalisation of men’s violence against women and the perceived different social value of women and men (sex inequality) are the backdrop of these men’s murderous intent and actions.

Between 2009 and 2018, 43 women in Merseyside were killed by men. They include 28-year-old Jade Hales and her mum, Karen Hales, 53, making Karen one of the 13 women who were mother-in-laws noted above. In 2016, Anthony Showers, 42, broke into his ex-partner Jade’s home and killed and raped her and killed her mother, his ex-mother-in-law, Karen, who was disabled and needed a frame to walk, by bludgeoning both women to death with a hammer. This year, Merseyside MPs held an emergency meeting called by Labour MP Paula Barker, after three women, Helen Joy, Rose Marie Tinton and N’Taya Elliott Cleverley, were killed in one weekend in January. Surely, this alone should mean that Liverpool’s senior council officials recognised – for themselves – that women’s suspicious deaths were not an appropriate subject matter for humour. It is inconceivable that the person who commissions domestic homicide reviews in the city was unaware of this.

Merseyside police reported an increase in reports of domestic abuse of 10.4 per cent – equivalent to 18,782 victims – between April 1 and November 30 2020, compared to the same period the year before.Yvonne Roberts, writing for the Observer, reported that in the last year LDAS, Liverpool’s specialist independent service for women,  has seen a 145% increase in demand for counselling and group-based support and the highest number of self-referrals in its 15-year history. Yet this specialist independent service of experts has increasingly found themselves frozen out by Liverpool City Council and council funded services for women victims of domestic violence and abuse in the city are provided by a national provider that does not have a specific focus on women victims of men’s violence. YSadly this commissioning pattern, ignoring decades of research that show that women victim-survivors of men’s violence are best served and feel safer using  specialist independent local women-led services and moreover, ignoring that women are the vast majority of victims of domestic and sexual violence, has been seen across the UK for more than a decade.  If a woman in Liverpool looks for domestic abuse support on Liverpool City Council’s website, the first ‘service’ she will see is that for ‘Ask Ani’, a national scheme much vaunted by the government, whereby women can approach any one of 2,500 pharmacies and ask for Ani. In contrast to the experience of Liverpool’s specialist service and those of specialist independent women’s charities across the country, the Ask Ani scheme, with its 2,500 access points, has attracted less that one woman a week across the entire country since its launch in January. Women who are subjected to men’s violence reach out to those they trust. It doesn’t look to me like Ask Ani is it. When abused women don’t access services, it doesn’t mean that abuse isn’t happening, it’s much more likely to mean that  (if they know about the service) they don’t think it can or will help.  

Men’s fatal violence against women isn’t the only reason that Liverpool has made the national news this year. Girls at Broughton Hall Catholic High School, in West Derby, Liverpool, were advised to wear shorts under their skirts after male pupils were allegedly caught taking photos up their skirts as they used a transparent glass staircase. The school had previously taken swift action to address its concerns that females were wearing inappropriate pencil skirts by sending them home. Evidently the school expects females to take responsibility for the male gaze and sexual harassment.

Steve Reddy, Director of Liverpool City Council Children & Young People Services and Domestic Abuse Strategic Lead, also has form with his regard to his antipathy to recognising the critical importance of sex differences with regards to sexual and domestic violence and abuse. In 2018, Steve Reddy’s first act, as Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) Strategy Lead was to propose that the VAWG strategic group was renamed because  (to quote from his own email)  the “remit and scope did not sufficiently capture the breadth of issues involved in domestic abuse – particularly in terms of male victims.”

The United Nations recognises that (men’s) violence against women in public and private life impedes the ability of women and girls to claim, realize [SIC] and enjoy their human rights on an equal foot with men. Is it enough if someone in a position of responsibility apologises for an offensive joke? One of the things I’d want to know is whether ‘the joke’ chimes or contrasts with their track record. We can all say or do things that we regret and don’t really mean when we reflect on them later. But it’s not the only question. What if that person has a lead role with regards to the protection of the demographic that is the subject of said joke? What if violence – including fatal violence – against that demographic has reached unprecedented levels? What if that person’s track record is one of undermining the human rights abuses of and specialist provision for that subjugated demographic? Then, no, whether causing offence was the intention or not, I don’t think it is good enough.

On 13 April, Reddy announced that he was standing down as chair of Liverpool Domestic Abuse Strategy Group.

Trauma-Informed Services for Women Subjected to Men’s Violence Must be Single-Sex Services

For many women and girls, the boundaries between domestic and sexual violence and abuse, are very much blurred. For some this abuse includes prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation too.

It’s not unusual for women who’ve been subjected to men’s violence to develop a trauma response. These sometimes develop after a single incident of violence, particularly with regards to sexual violence, though sometimes it can develop after years or months of living in fear, walking on egg-shells, recognising that tone of voice, that look in the eyes, that sigh, that pause, that silence, that change in his breathing. Some women have lived this, with a succession of perpetrators starting from their dad – who may have been physically, sexually or emotionally violent, abusive and controlling or a mixture of them all – all their lives.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can develop in response to trauma that may have occurred recently or in the distant past. Those who have experienced sexual trauma, especially whilst young are at greater risk, with victims of multiple forms of childhood abuse and neglect most at risk of lifetime trauma[i] Women victim-survivors of child sexual abuse are at least twice as likely to experience adult sexual victimisation[ii]. 51% of adults who were abused as children experienced domestic abuse in later life and approximately one in six adults who were abused as a child had been subjected to domestic violence and abuse in the previous year[iii].

Studies of women involved in prostitution found that between 63-80% reported being subjected violence in the course of being prostituted[iv]. One study found that women in prostitution were murdered at a rate 12 times above that of non-prostituted women[v]. Many women in prostitution describe sexual encounters as non-consensual, coerced or economically coerced rape. Two-Thirds of women in prostitution suffer PTSD.[vi]

After trauma, the brain can be triggered by something that would barely register for someone else, interpreting something that for many people would be unthreatening as a serious threat or danger, for example the presence of a man, particularly where not expected.

PTSD/trauma responses happen in a part of the brain called the amygdala. The amygdala detects a threat or perceived threat and can activate a “fight or flight” response.  This releases adrenaline, norepinephrine, and glucose into the body, and if the threat continues, cortisol. A part of the prefrontal cortex (an area in the front of the brain that processes emotions and behavioural reactions) assesses the threat and can either calm or reinforce the fight or flight response. People suffering trauma/PTSD have a hyper reactive amygdala and a less effective calming prefrontal cortex reaction. The brain becomes overwhelmed by the trauma (pre-frontal cortex shutdown) leading to disorientation and confusion as the higher brain functions of reasoning and language are disrupted.  Thinking and reasoning can be drowned out by feeling and being. Prolonged stress can lead to permanent change in the prefrontal cortex.

A trauma-informed safe space creates space for action and recovery from violence and abuse and places the woman victim-survivor in control and in the centre. The trauma response described earlier is the antithesis of a space for action and recovery, so a trauma informed approach is based on understanding the physical, social, and emotional impact of trauma caused by experiencing violence and abuse. A trauma-informed service for women understands the importance of creating an environment – physical and relational – that feels safe to victims-survivors in all the ways I’ve just mentioned. For many women this means excluding men from their recovery space, and yes, this includes those who don’t identify as men.  Their behaviour, the likelihood that they themselves may be abusive, is not relevant. If it is not women-only, it is not trauma informed for women who have been subjected to men’s violence.

We know that at least 80% of males who hold a gender recognition certificate retain their penis, but anyway, in almost every case, we don’t need to know what’s in their pants to know they are a man. Women experiencing trauma after violence and abuse will, like most of us – almost always instantly read someone who might be the most kind and gentle trans identified male in the world – as male; and they may experience a debilitating trauma response as a result. It’s not their fault, it’s not a choice and it’s not something they can be educated out of. It’s not hate. It’s not bigotry. It’s not transphobia. It is an impact of abuse and they need space, support and sometimes therapy – not increased confrontation with a trauma inducing trigger; not nowhere to go that offers a woman-only space.

To properly heal from trauma, in particular that caused by sexual violence, a course of counselling/therapy from a counsellor/therapist specially trained to deal with trauma/PTSD from sexual or domestic violence and abuse is often needed. Unfortunately, far too few women are offered this opportunity. Specialist women-led women-only organisations supporting victim-survivors of men’s violence are rarely funded to the extent that we can meet the levels of need that exist. All too often we’re contracted to do what commissioners value, this isn’t always what women want and need.

Women should not need to justify our desire for or the benefits of women-only space on the basis of violence perpetrated upon us or our sisters but we should recognise that some women need or benefit from it more than others. Not all women who are subjected to men’s violence and abuse will develop a trauma response. Not all women will be subjected to men’s violence and abuse, though globally one in three are at some point during our lifetime. Not all women who have been abused by men want women-only spaces but should they then take away the right of that space from those who do?

Of course, women who experience trauma/PTSD as a result of men’s violence are required to function in a world where men are present and for the most part, do. But women-only spaces in Rape Crisis Centres, refuges, women’s centres or women-only buildings or events, etc are spaces where women are not required to make all the mental self-adjustments to function in the presence of men. Women survivors and feminists (many of us both) created these spaces because we know how important this is. Somewhere we can function and feel OK, safe, maybe even relaxed and with our defences down and our vigilance switch turned low. Women who have been subjected to men’s violence deserve this down time, this head space.  Women-only space for women who have been subjected to men’s violence and abuse is something that must be protected by those of us who don’t need it, for those of us who do.


[i] Widom et al. 2008.
[ii] Classen, Palesh, & Aggarwal, 2005
[iii] ONS Impact of child abuse on later life, Crime Survey for England and Wales, year ending March 2016
[iv] Kinnell, 1993; Barnard et al., 2002, Campbell & Stoops, 2010
[v]Ward, Day & Weber, 1999
[vi] Farley, 1998.

We need to stop the hierarchy of dead women

2 British women and a third who had lived in London for 20 years went missing abroad within 6 days. All  three were found dead within 6 days.

130 Karen Cleary-BrownThis is Karen Cleary-Brown. She was 44 years old and had lived in Islington, N, London for 20 years. She had been missing in Jamaica since 25 November.  She was found dead on 3rd December.  A man who was working on her property has been charged with her murder.


130 barbara FindleyThis is Barbara Findley. She was 58 and from Kennington, S. London but had lived in Jamaica for the last 5 years. She was reported missing on 29 November. She was found dead on 5 December.



130 Grace Millane

This is Grace Millane. She was 22 and from Essex.  She went missing on 1st December whilst travelling in New Zealand. She was found dead on 9 December.  A 26-year-old male, who has been granted name suppression whilst awaiting trial, has appeared in court  in relation to her death.



How many of those names did you know? How many of their photos had you seen?

The killing of Grace Millane is an atrocity, but no more so than the killings of Karen Clearly-Brown and Barbara Findley, no more so than the (at least) 127 other UK women suspected to have been killed by men (or where a man or men are the principal suspects) so far this year.

Karen Cleary-Brown, Barbara Findley and Grace Millane – 3 missing women, 3 women found dead.

The killings of women who are not young, not white, not killed on holiday, not killed by a stranger should  be no less shocking or upsetting. They are not less worthy of media or public attention or mourning. We need to stop the hierarchy of dead women.


127 women


170 women killed by men (or where a man is the principal suspect) in 360 days.

  1. 3 January 2018: Elizabeta Lacatusu, 44, was killed by 19 knife injuries to her chest and neck inflicted by her former partner, Genu Armeanu, 45, whom she had left the previous month.
  2. 5 January 2018: Terrie-Anne Jones, 52, was stabbed 26 times by her partner John Lewis, 56. Her injuries included an 8cm deep stab wound to her heart, 13 to her neck, three to her collarbone, and two to her chest, with defence wounds to both hands.
  3. 8 January 2018: Claire Tavener, 27, was stabbed 10 times with a lock-knife – including two to the neck and two to the chest by her husband Andrew Tavener, 45, who had been violent and abusive to her during their relationship.
  4. 9 January 2018: Julie Clark, 59, was found dead at home, she had died of stab wounds. Jason Nellist, 40, has been charged with her murder.
  5. 10 Jan 2018: Geraldine Mellor, 32, was strangled to death by her boyfriend of 6 months,  Darrell Rose, 36.
  6. 12 January 2018: Amelia Blake, 22, was killed whist travelling in Australia by her boyfriend Brazil Gurung, 33, who also killed himself.
  7. 13 January 2018: Cassie Hayes, 28, was killed by Andrew Burke, 30, the ex-partner of her girlfriend. He slit her throat.
  8. 24 January 2017: Claire Harris, 44, was killed by her ex- partner Ricardo Wilson, 50, whom she had allowed to stay in the flat she rented whilst he looked for a new home. She had suffered 86 injuries – half of them to her head and face.
  9. 26 January 2018: Cheryl Gabriel-Hooper, 51, was shot dead. A 45-year-old man was also injured was arrested on suspicion of murder. Cheryl had recently separated from her 45-year-old husband John Hooper.
  10. 29 January 2018: Janet Scott was stabbed by her ex-boyfriend Simon Mellors, she survived the attack but he ran her over and killed her as she tried to flee. Mellors had killed a former partner, Pearl Black in 1999 and killed Janet whist on licence.
  11. 29 January 2018: Agnieszka Swierczynska-Jaros, 37 died of multiple organ failure in a house fire that had been started deliberately. 2 men were arrested on suspicion of arson with the intent to cause harm but were released due to lack of evidence. In her inquest the coroner said that he believed witnesses had been untruthful and was convinced that the fire was a deliberate act as there were two start points and traces of fuel throughout the house.
  12. 29 January 2018: Paula Harris, 44, was strangled to death by her partner Michael Foster, 39.
  13. 6 February 2017: Ruksana Begum, 47, was stabbed by Mohammed Tafham, 30, the former boyfriend of her daughter. Tafham attempted to make it look like she had killed herself by placing the knife in her hand. She had suffered three major stab wounds to the front of her body and one of them passed right through her heart. A pathologist told the jury it would have been ‘very difficult’ for Mrs Begum to have done that herself.
  14. 10 February 2018: Samantha Archer, 43, was injected with heroin by her boyfriend Andrew Williams who has been found guilty of manslaughter. Williams claims that she consented but also told officers he had pushed Ms Archer on to a settee “to calm her down” and that he had given her more than usual.
  15. 13 February 2018: Saeeda Hussain, 54, suffered serious head injuries and was found dead at home. Muhammed Javed, 58, has been charged with murder.
  16. 13 February 2108: Danielle Richardson, 24, was stabbed 15 times in her face, neck and back by her boyfriend Michael Marler, 37.
  17. 16 Feb 2018: Sarbjit Kaur, 38, was found dead at home after what was set up to look like a botched robbery. She had been asphyxiated. Three months later, her husband Gurpreet Singh, 42, was been charged with her murder
  18. 17 February 2018: Jill Sadler, 58, was found strangled by her husband David Sadler, 61.
  19. 18 February 2018: Heather Jordan, 34, was strangled by Martin Corns, 52. Corns was a workmate who had been harassing and stalking Heather for some time. She had told him that she did not want a relationship with him.
  20. 21 February 2018: Lynn McNally, 46, died of multiple stab wounds inflicted by her partner Paul Beddoes, 44.
  21. 22 February 2018: Charlotte Teeling, 33, was last seen alive and was reported missing 4 days later. She was found dead on 2 March. She had been killed by Richard Bailey, 40, who had a string of violent offences against women.
  22. 25 February 2018: Mary Ragoobeer, 46, her 2 sons and 2 other women were killed in an explosion in a shop below the Ragoobeer’s’ flat. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  23. 25 February 2018: Leah Reek, 18, and 4 others were killed in an explosion which destroyed a shop and the flat above it. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  24. 25 February 2018: Viktoria Ijevleva, 22, and 4 others were killed in an explosion which destroyed a shop and the flat above it. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  25. 27 February 2018: Denise also know as Crystal Gossett, who has in her 40s and her daughter Diane, 19, (below) son Edward, 16 and Diane’s young daughter, were killed in house fire. Daniel Allen, 27, has been charged with four counts of murder and one count of arson with intent to cause danger to life.
  26. 27 February 2018: Sabrina also known as Elektra Gossett, 19, her daughter, mother (above) and brother, were killed in a house fire. Daniel Allen, 27, has been charged with four counts of murder and one count of arson with intent to cause danger to life.
  27. 27 February 2018: Laura Huteson, 21, was stabbed in the throat by Jason Gaskell, 23. Previous partners of Gaskell said that he had a history of violent sadomasochist sex.
  28. 28 February 2018: Anne James, 74, was stabbed more than 40 times in her head and back by Her grandson, Jason Gaskell, 23.
  29. Julie Reilly was sat seen alive on 6thFebruary 2018. Her disappearance became a murder investigation as parts of her body were found in April. Andrew Wallace, 41, has been charged with her murder.
  30. 5 March 2018: Laura Figueira de Farida, 47, was found stabbed to death at home shortly after the bodies of her husband Adelino Figueira de Farida, 57, and two sons aged 7 and 10, were found at the bottom of cliffs. Police say they believe she was and the children were murdered and are not looking for anyone else.
  31. 5 March 2018: Angela Rider, 51, was killed by Adrian Rodi, 51. It is not clear whether they had any connection.
  32. 6 March 2018: Fiona Scourfield, 54, was killed by her 16-year-old stepson Reuben Braithwaite who battered her head with an axe before slitting her throat with a Samuri sword.
  33. 15 March 2018: Hope Barden, 20, died of asphyxiation during a sex-act on the internet paid for by Jerome Danger, 45. Danger was a regular on-line sex forum user preoccupied with strangulation, stabbing, torture and death. He was due to be questioned in relation to Hope’s death whilst serving a 14-month prison sentence for possession of pornography consisting of “the worst images it is possible to image” when he was found dead.
  34. 17 March 2018: Jennifer Rogers, 56, was stabbed to death by her husband Peter Rogers, 61.
  35. 16 March 2018: Michelle Savage, 32, and her mum Heather Whitbread, 53, were shot dead by Michelle’s ex-husband Paul Savage.
  36. 16 March 2018: Heather Whitbread, 53, and her daughter Michelle Savage, 32, were shot dead by Michelle’s ex-husband Paul Savage.
  37. 21 March 2018: Diane Jones, 62, was stuck with a claw hammer wielded by her son Wayne Beer, 42. Her skull was fractured in several places.
  38. 30 March 2018: Jenny Cronin, 72, was doused in fuel and set alight by her ex-son-in-law Kieran Lynch, who also killed himself in the attack.
  39. 30 March 2018: Leyla Mtumwa, 36, was strangled then stabbed at least 49 times in her  head, neck, body and arms by her husband Kema Salum, 38. Salum had been extremely violent to a previous partner.
  40. 31 March 2018: Ourania Lambrou, 80, died after being pushed to the ground by Harry Goodwin-Sim, 29. She hit her head and died of a brain haemorrhage, which was caused by the assault.
  41. 2 April 2018: Tanesha Melbourne, 17, died in her mother’s arms after having been shot in a drive-by shooting.
  42. 6 April 2018: Tracy Stonehouse, 51, was battered repeatedly around the head, strangled her and then stabbed her six times by her husband Arthur Stonehouse, 73.
  43. 7 April 2018: Lesley Potter, 66, was strangled by her husband Derek Potter, 63. He attempted to make her death look like suicide but confessed to killing her to a colleague.
  44. 10 April 2018: Alexis Flynn, 42, died after having been stabbed to death, allegedly by her ex-partner, David Payne, 51. He was also charged with punching her on the face and body, putting his hands round her neck and compressing in February this year.
  45. 12 April 2018: Viktorija Sokolova, 14, was raped and killed through blunt force trauma to her head. She was found dead a day after being reported missing. A 16-year-old male has been charged with rape and murder.
  46. 12 April 2018: Margaret Howlett, 63, was stabbed to death by her husband of less approximately 1 year, David Pawluk, 59.
  47. 13 April 2018: Maryna Kavaliauskas, 35, was strangled to death with a ligature.
  48. 14 April 2018: Angela Craddock, 40, was beaten to death and died of blunt force trauma inflicted by her partner William Smart,54, who had just been released from prison for a previous assault on her. She had over 100 injuries and was so badly injured she had to be identified by her fingerprints
  49. 15 April 2018: Natasha Hill, 18, died of a head injury. Her partner Scott Clifford,33, was found guilty of her murder and a further two counts of actual bodily harm and one of common assault relating to incidents prior. She had 53 injuries including black eyes and a fractured skull.  He will serve 17 years and 165 days in prison.
  50. 15 April 2018: Samantha Clarke, 38, was stabbed to death. Jordan Clarke, 21, believed to be her nephew, has been charged with her murder.
  51. 18 April 2018: Jennifer Morgan, 33, was stabbed to death. Her partner, Hugh Baird, 39, was charged with her murder.
  52. 19 April 2018: Cecilia Seddon’s body was found concealed in a mattress in a property in Penzance, she had last been seen on 13 April. Clayton Hawkes, 52, with whom she was in a casual relationship, and Blaze Fisher, 25, were charged with perverting the course of justice. Hawkes was also charged with injecting her with a noxious substance (heroin and cocaine).  Her body was so badly decomposed when it was found that it was impossible to identify the cause of her death. She was 32.
  53. 20 April 2018: Julie Hunt, 47, was found seriously hurt after being attacked and died of her injuries. Florin Ion, 31, has been charged with her murder.
  54. 21 April 2018: Betty Lyons, 85, was strangled by her husband George Lyons, 88, who then killed himself. Her death was recorded as unlawful killing.
  55. 22 April 2018: Hollie Kerrell, 28, was reported missing and later found dead, buried in a shallow grave. Her husband of 5 years from who she had recently separated, Christopher Kerrell, 35, used a hammer to batter the right side of her head before strangling her.
  56. 26 April 2018: Elizabeth Lacey, 63, was stabbed to death.  Her son, Christopher Lacey, 21, has been detained under the Mental Health Act in relation to her death.
  57. 26 April 2018: Joleen Corr was attacked by her boyfriend Michael O’Connor, 23, in December 2016. She was left brain damaged and in severe pain, requiring 24-hour care. She died, aged 27, after a landmark court ruling that she should no longer be kept alive.
  58. 27 April 2018: Fiona Fisher, 51, was stabbed by her son Thomas Fisher,
  59. 28 April 2018: Faye Caliman, 30 was stabbed 12 times by her husband Marian Caliman in her face, neck, stomach, heart and back, where part of the blade snapped off. He who filmed himself slapping and shouting abuse at her before he killed her.
  60. 30 April 2018: Nicola Roberts, 44, was bludgeoned unconscious by her ex-husband Neil Barass, 45, before he stabbed her to death and then killed himself.
  61. Mihrican Mustafa, 38, was found dead in East London on 26 April 2019, she had been reported missing by her family in May 2018.
  62. 13 May 2018: Onees Khatoon, 71, was strangled by her son, Majid Butt, 51.
  63. 13 May 2020: Sarah Clayton, 21, was found dead in a tent on a campsite in East Sussex. In November 2020, her fiancé Christopher Cole, whom she had been seeing since February, was charged with her murder.
  64. 14 May 2018: Jessica Patel, 34, was found dead after suffering serious injuries. Her husband Mitesh Patel, 36, has been charged with her murder.
  65. 15 May 2018: Rosina Coleman, 85, was killed through blunt force trauma to her head and neck inflicted with a hammer. 65-year-old ‘handyman’ Paul Prause has been charged with her murder.
  66. 18 May 2018: Bernadette Green, 88, was found dead. Her death was not initially thought to be suspicious, but after post mortem tests, her son John Green, 65, was charged with her murder.
  67. 20 May 2018: Sophie Cavanagh, 31, was found dead. An autopsy found that she had died of compression to the neck. Her estranged husband, Martin Cavanagh, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  68. 20 May 2018: Angela Conoby, 54, stabbed to death by her partner of more than 30 years, Peter Stagis, 60.
  69. 25 May 2018: Christina Abbotts, 29, was found bludgeoned to death in her bed after failing to turn up at celebrations planned for her birthday. Zahid Naseem, 47, has been found guilty of her murder.
  70. 28 May 2018: Laura Mortimer, 31, and her 11-year-old daughter Ella Dalby, were stabbed to death by Christopher Boon, an ex-partner of Laura.. Police said Boon had a history of violence and in 2010 he was handed a suspended sentence for attacking a former partner and her mother.
  71. 29 May 2018: Denise Rosser, 38, was found dead at home where she had been beaten to death. She had recently told friends that she was frightened to go home. Simon Winston, 49, has been charged with her murder.
  72. 29 May 2018: Joanne Bishop, 39, died in hospital 4 days after her partner Shane Clarke, 52, stabbed her 29 times with a screwdriver.
  73. 31 May 2018: Jill Hibberd, 71, was stabbed to death. Lee Fueleop, 40, has been charged with murder, theft and burglary.
  74. Mihrican Mustafa, 38, was found dead in East London on 26 April 2019, she had been reported missing by her family in May 2018.
  75. In May 2017, Mary Gregory, 94, died in hospital due to smoke inhalation after a fire at her home in Lancashire. In November 2021, her son’s stepson, Tiernan Danton, 21, was found guilty of her murder. He disabled the fire alarm, impeded her exit and started the fire.
  76. 1 June 2018: Andra Hilitanu, 28, suffered multiple injuries including a fatal neck wound. Her unborn child also died in the attack. Her boyfriend,  Ioan Campeanu, 43, has been charged with her murder.
  77. 6 June 2018: Zofija Kaczan, 100, died in hospital after having her neck and cheek broken in a robbery. Arthur Waszkiewicz, 39, has been charged with robbery and manslaughter.
  78. 8 June 2018: Tina Cantello, 49, was reported missing after she failed to turn up for work. She was found dead the next day with multiple stab wounds. Geoffrey Hutton, 38, has been charged with her murder.
  79. 9 June 2018: Marie Gibson, 35, was found dead at home.  The cause of her death was described as “blunt force head, oblique facial injuries”  Her partner Shane Murphy, 27, has been charged with her murder.
  80. 12 June 2018: Tracy Patsalides , 40, was found dead with head and neck injuries in a seafront shelter in Eastbourne. Wayne Marshall, 38, has been charged with her murder.
  81. 23 June 2018: Gita Suri, 56, was stabbed to death. Her partner Gary Davis, 50 has been charged with her murder.
  82. 30 June 2018: Klarissa-Charlene Faith, 26, was found dead by police who had been called to her home. Her partner, Stuart Hall, 47, has been charged with her murder.
  83. 1 July 2018: Shuren Ma, 72, was found with a critical head injury and died at the scene by police who had been called to a disturbance. A man in his 70s was found with stab wounds. The police are not looking for anyone else.
  84. 6 July 2018: Samantha Toms, 47, was found dead at home. Her partner Ralph Fairman, 50, has been charged with her murder.
  85. 7 July 2018: Lorna Myers, 54, was killed by her son, Malo Myers, 32,  who was found guilty of manslaughter. Her 14-year-old son was also badly injured
  86. 8 July 2018: Stela Marisabel Domador-Kuzma, 34, was stabbed to death by Ryan Thornton. Thornton has also admitted to charges of possessing indecent images of children.
  87. 8 July 2018: Patricia Franks, 86, was killed by her husband Lawrence Franks, 84.
  88. 8 July 2018: Dawn Sturgess, 44, was killed after applying the nerve agent novichok which had been discarded in a counterfeit perfume bottle. The UK government believe it was the same military-grade substance used in an attack on a former Russian spy and are said the hold the Russian state responsible.
  89. 10 July 2018: Gina Ingles, 34, and her 4-year-old son, Milo, 4, died of smoke inhalation after a fire in their home. Her partner, 26, remains in hospital. A 23-year-old has been released under investigation pending further enquires.
  90. 10 July 2018: Joyce Burgess, 84, died of a heart attack in hospital 3 days after being assaulted by Johnny Brazil, 27, when her burgled her home. He caused significant injuries to her arms, face and chest and admitted manslaughter in June 2019.
  91. 12 July 2018: Riasat Bi, 86, died of multiple stab wounds. Madni Ahmed, 20, has been charged with her murder.
  92. 12 July 2018: Katerina Makunova, 17, was stabbed to death. Oluwaseyi Dada, 21, has been charged with her murder.
  93. 19 July 2018: Lesley Davies, 81, died in hospital after being attacked in the street. A 69-year-old man has been detained under the mental Health Act and her death is being treated as murder.
  94. 24 July 2018: Sheila Thomas, 69, was found dead with stab wounds at her home in South London. She had been killed  by her husband, David Thomas, 73.
  95. 26 July 2018: Lucy McHugh, 13, was found stabbed to death. Stephen-Alan Nicholson, 24, was bailed and later remanded in custody charged with withholding information.
  96. 29 July 2018: Stephanie (aka Stevie) Packman 64, was killed by her husband Michael Packman, He cut her throat and then tried to kill himself. He was given a 2-year suspended sentence.
  97. July 2018: Anne Reid, 81, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Susan Reid below. Knox is also facing charges in relation to other patients.
  98. July 2018: Susan Reid, 73, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Anne Reid above. Knox is also facing charges in relation to other patients.
  99. 27 July 2018: Sam Eastwood, 28, was found dead in a shallow grave 8 days after being strangled by her partner Michael Stirling, 32.
  100. 2 August 2018: Karen Peter, who was in her 50s, was found dead after a house fire in Dagenham, E. London. Thomas Peter, 50, has been charged with murder and arson with intent to endanger life.
  101. 3 August 2018: Kelly Franklin, 29, was stabbed to death in the street in what police have described as a ‘targeted attack’. Torbjorn (Ian) Kettlewell, 30, has been charged with her murder and possession of a bladed article.
  102. 6 August 2018: Katherine Kemp, 31, was found stabbed to death after her husband Thomas Kemp jumped out of a window.. Her death is being treated as murder, his as suicide.
  103. 6 August 2018: Tracey Evans, 52, was found dead in a flat in Leicestershire. Jeremy Clarke, 54, has been charged with her murder.
  104. 7 August 2018: Marie Walker, 61, was found dead by the police in Edinburgh after neighbours raised concerns. Robert Douglas, 62, has been charged with her murder.
  105. 15 August 2018: Simonne Kerr, 31, died after being stabbed in her home in South London. Her partner, Desmond Sylva, 40, has been charged with her murder.
  106. 15 August 2018: Barbara Davison, 66, was found dead in Redcar. Paul Plunkett, 61, has been charged with her murder.
  107. 21 August 2018: Kaltoun Saleh, 43, died in hospital after sustaining serious burns in a fire at her home in north London on 5 July. 4 children escaped unhurt. Abdi Quule, 42, had previously been charged with attempted murder.
  108. 22 August 2018: Carole Harrison, 73, was found dead after a fire at her house in South West London. Police say she had been attacked before the fire.
  109. 26 August 2018: Sharon Perett, 37, was found dead due to blunt force trauma trauma. Her partner Daniel O’Malley-Keyes, 30, has been charged with murder, it is alleged that Sharon was “beaten to death over the course of a weekend”.
  110. 26/27 August 2018: Raneem Oudeh, 22, was stabbed to death with her mother, Khaola Saleem, 49. Her former partner, Janbaz Tarin, 21, has been charged with their murders.
  111. 26/27 August 2018: Khaola Saleem, 49, was stabbed to death with her daughter, Raneem Oudeh, 22. Raneem’s former partner Janbaz Tarin, 21, has been charged with their murders.
  112. August 2018: Eileen Baxter, 75, died of multiple organ failure following the puncture of her bowl caused by a vaginal mesh implant. The insufficiently tested and poorly regulated plastic mesh devices have been called the greatest health scandal since Thalidomide.
  113. 28 August 2018: Lisa Butler, 48, was stabbed to death by her uncle Richard Butler, 66.
  114. 29 August 2018: Laura Harrison, 36, was beaten, strangled, and stabbed once in the forehead and 17 times in the buttocks by her boyfriend Jonathon Robinson, 32.
  115. 1 September 2018: Celia Levitt, 68, was strangled. Her son, Barry Levitt, 36, has been charged with her murder.
  116. 2 September 2018: Julie Owens, 52, died in hospital 11 days after being seriously assaulted, allegedly by her 30-year-old son John Owens.
  117. 5 September 2018: Joan Hoggett, 62, was stabbed multiple times whilst at work in a local shop. Ethan Mountain, 29, has been charged with her murder.
  118. 6 September 2018: Memunatu Warne, 43, died of smoke inhalation after a masked man riding a moped threw a petrol bomb through a window of the home of a relative she was visiting. 3 men, Kurtis Freeman, 21, Matthew John, 19, and Martin McArdle, 28, have been charged in relation to her death.
  119. 6 September 2018: Kylie Dembrey, 28, died following an attack at her home in which she was stabbed and strangled. Her partner Mark Sinclair, 30, has been charged with her murder.
  120. 9 September 2018: Susan Gyde, 52, was found by police when they were called to attend to a serious assault. She was pronounced dead later in hospital. Her husband Philip Gyde, has been charged with murder.
  121. 11 September 2018: Yvonne Robinson, 60, died at her home in Cumbria. A post mortem revealed that the cause of her death was blunt chest trauma. She had 15 rib fractures and was suffering from neglect. Her partner, Colin Sharples was arrested after her death but died before the post mortem was produced. Assistant coroner Dr Nicholas Shaw said had he not died ‘I have no doubt he would have been arrested and prosecuted in relation to Yvonne’s death and he might well have been charged with her murder.’ There was a history of him abusing her.
  122. 20 September 2018: Kay Martin, 49, was killed at her home in Sunderland by her husband Alan Martin, 53, who then killed himself.
  123. 21 September 2018: Cristina Magda-Calancea, 26, was stabbed to death in Kings Lynn, Norfolk, on 21 September. Gediminas Jasinska, 29, has been charged with her murder.
  124. 21 September 2018: Frances Hubbard, 81, died of multiple stab wounds. Her husband Michael Hubbard, 81has been detained under the Mental Health Act after being questioned by police in relation to her death.
  125. 23 September 2018: Sandra Zmijan, 32, was found bludgeoned to death with head injuries caused by a blunt object. Wojciech Tadewicz, 26, has been charged with her murder.
  126. 25 September 2018: Margaret Harris, 78, and her daughter Sharon Harris, 55, were stabbed to death. Witnesses said they tried to intervene in an argument between a man and a woman. Jack Ralph, 28, has been charged with their murders.
  127. 25 September 2018: Sharon Harris, 55, and her mother Margaret Harris, 78, were stabbed to death. Witnesses said they tried to intervene in an argument between a man and a woman. Jack Ralph, 28, has been charged with their murders.
  128. 26 September 2018: Jeanna Maher, 51, was bound with a ligature at her wrists and ankles and repeatedly hit on the head and a body with an unknown implement. Her husband Peter Maher, 578, has been charged with her murder.
  129. 30 September 2018: Glenda Jackson, 44, was stabbed to death. Two brothers, Nicholas Curtis, 32, and Stuart Curtis, 31, have been charged with her murder.
  130. 1 October 2018: Avan Najmadeen, 32, was found stabbed to death in her home. Dana Abdullah, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  131. 8 October 2018: Natalie Saunders, 33, was found dead. There were 85 separate sites of injury on her body – with a minimum of three blows found to her face, 13 to her head and neck, 23 to her torso, and 25 to her lower limbs. Her boyfriend Stephen Charlton, 24, has was found guilty of her murder.
  132. 9 October 2018: Sarah Wellgreen, 47, was last seen alive. Her former partner, Ben Lacomba, 38, was arrested on October 16 in connection with the investigation but later released. Before being rearrested and charged on 20th Sarah’s body has not yet been found.
  133. 22 October 2018: Nazia Ali, 25, was found dead. Mohammed Anhar, 32, has been charged with her murder.
  134. 24 October 2018: Teresa Garner, 46, died of significant head injuries from severe blunt force trauma with a hammer. Her husband John Garner, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  135. 28 October 2018: Lynn Forde, 35, was found dead after her partner Phil Osborne, 36, called the police and told them that her had killed her.
  136. 29 October 2018: Mavis Bran, 69, died in hospital of multiple organ failure after developing sepsis and hypothermia after suffering severe burns in the chip shop she owned with her husband. Geoff Bran, 70, her husband, was charged with and later cleared of her murder though admitted that he continued to serve customers in the chip shop rather than seek medical assistance. Mavis had previously confided in a friend that her was abusive to her.
  137. 30 October 2018: Sheena Jackson, 58 was found dead with Alexander Jackson, 65. Police have confirmed that they believe her death was murder but that of her husband was not suspicious and they are not looking for anyone else.
  138. 2 November 2018: Anne Marie Pomfret, 49, was found dead having suffered serious head injuries. Her husband David Pomfret, 50, was charged with her murder in April 2019 and found guilty in October 2019. He had battered her to death with a crowbar.
  139. 3 November 2018: Renata Poncova, 33, was pushed out of an 8-th floor window by her boyfriend Tony Taylor, 33.
  140. 6 November 2018: Fiona McDonald, 44, was found dead by police who had been called to attend to ‘a disturbance’. William Finlay, 56, has been charged in relation to her death.
  141. 8 Nov 2018: Natalie Smith, 34, was found with life threatening injuries and died in hospital. She had been stabbed. Her partner Craig Stewart, 36, was also dead. The police said Natalie was assaulted and they are not looking for anyone else in connection to the incident.
  142. 12 November 2018: Tanseen Sheikh, was found dead with multiple injuries at her home. Her husband, Naseer Khan, 66, has been charged with her murder and has been accused of bludgeoning her to death with a vase.
  143. 12 November 2018: Sana Muhammad, 35, was shot in the stomach with a crossbow. She was pronounced dead by doctors who were able to deliver the baby she was carrying. Ramanodge Unmathallegadoo, 50, has been charged with her murder.
  144. 12 November 2018: Katarzyna (Kasia) Paszek, 39, died in hospital after an alleged police attack. Police said a 40-year-old man had been released on conditional bail and their investigation was continuing.
  145. 13 November 2018: Pauline Kilkenny, 59, was found dead at her home after concerns were raised when she didn’t turn up at work. A 28-year-old male has been charged in relation to her death.
  146. 16 November 2018: Maureen Watkins, 75, died from multiple stab wounds. Her son Edward Watkins, has been charged in relation to her death.
  147. 16 November 2018: Valerie Neal, 75, was in hospital in a stoke unit in Blackpool. She died of a haemorrhage caused by a “non-medical related internal injury”, The post-mortem examination was one of a number carried out as part of an investigation into allegations of mistreatment and neglect on the hospital’s stroke unit. Investigating officers had received information about other allegations of serious sexual assaults against two patients, as well as the sexual assault of a healthcare professional working on the stroke unit.  A healthcare professional was arrested in 2021.
  148. 17 November 2018: Jacqueline Allen, 65, died in a house fire, allegedly shortly after warning the police that her daughter’s ex-partner was dangerous. Simon Childs, 51, is charged with her murder and the attempted murder of her 12-year-old granddaughter.
  149. 24 November 2018: Samantha Gosney, 29, was stabbed to death in her home. Adam Brettle, 23, has been charged in relation to her murder.
  150. 25 November 2018: Karen Cleary-Brown,  44 , went missing in Jamaica. She was found dead on 3rd December.  Shelden Hewitt,  32, who was working on her property has been charged with her murder.
  151. 27 November 2018: Lorraine Matos-Sanchez, 27, died of compression to her neck inflicted by her husband Jesus Matos-Sanchez, 31, who then killed himself.
  152. 28 November 2018: Kelly Worgan, 33, was strangled to death by her husband George Worgan, 35.
  153. 29 November 2018: Barbara Findlay, 58 was from Kennington, S. London but had lived in Jamaica for the last 5 years. She was reported missing on 29 November. She was found dead on 5 December.
  154. 1 December 2018: Grace Millane, 22, was from Essex. She went missing on 1st December whilst travelling in New Zealand. She was found dead on 9 December.  A  26 year old male, who has been granted name suppression whilst awaiting trial, has appeared in court  in relation to her death.
  155. 4 December2018: Maureen Whale, 77, collapsed on the phone when calling the police while her house was being burgled by two males. Post-mortem tests found she died from coronary heart disease brought on by the stress of the incident.
  156. 5 December 2018: Sally Cavender, 55, was taken to hospital critically injured but died shortly after. Robert Simpson-Scott, 43. Has been charged with her murder.
  157. 10 December 2018: June Knight, 79, died after falling from a balcony. Robert Knight, 52, has been charged in relation to her death. It was reported that a court heard “A devoted son killed his mother by lifting her over a balcony at a care home.”
  158. 13 December 2018: An as-yet-unnamed 30-year-old woman was found dead. Anthony Davis, 39, has been charged with her murder.
  159. 14 December 2018: Poppy Devey-Waterhouse, was declared dead by police and paramedics called to attend. Joe Atkinson, 25, has been charged with her murder. The preliminary cause of her death has been recorded as head and neck trauma.
  160. 17 December 2018: Sheila Small, 73, was beaten to death with a rolling pin and walking stick by her husband Edward Small, 76. Prosecutor David Brooke QC said she had wounds to the top of her head that had split the skin to the skull. She had up to 26 separate injuries to her face, extensive bruising to her body and all four limbs, a shattered shoulder blade, a broken collar bone and fractured ribs. Her right arm was “absolutely covered in bruises” and the index finger was broken.
  161. 19 December 2018: Lana Owen, 46, was found dead. Philip Andrews, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  162. 22 December 2018: Marissa Aldrich, 29, was found dead. Robert McWhir, 25, has been charged with her murder. A post mortem recorded that she had drowned.
  163. 22 December 2018: Joanne Gallagher 33, was stabbed 57 times by James Kennedy, 31.
  164. 23 December 2018: Carole Forth, 56, was found dead.  Her partner Edward Scott, 62, has been charged in relation to her death.
  165. 25 December 2018: Parwin Qureshi, 19, was found with serious injuries caused by multiple stab wounds. She was declared dead at the scene. Her husband Mohammad Qureshi, 27, has been charged with her murder.
  166. 26 December 2018: Angela Mittal, 41 was stabbed 59 times by her husband, Laurens Brand, 47, shortly after speaking to a solicitor about divorce.
  167. 26 December 2018: Alena Grlakova, 38, was found dead, naked in stream, in Rotherham, in April 2019 after having last been seen alive on boxing day 2018. She had been strangled And her body was covered In grit and stone. Gary Allen, 47, was found guilty of her murder.
  168. 26 December 2018: Joy Morgan, 21 was last seen alive at a church celebration in London. Ajibola Shogbamimu, 40, has been charged with her murder. Joy’s body has not been found.
  169. 30 December 2018: June Jones, 33, was found dead after being reported missing on 26 December, Police have said they believe she had been dead for some time. Her ex-boyfriend, Michael Foran, 32.
  170. 30 December 2018: Linda Jane McArity, 50, was found strangled. Ian Kerr, 36, was found guilty of her murder.

Last updated 13 November 2021.

Clare’s Law – Let’s talk about Manchester

Becky Ayres, killed on the 6th March 2014,  is the second woman in Greater Manchester to have been stabbed by a partner/ex-partner this year following the stabbing of Caroline Finegan in January.  Last year, 5 women in Manchester were killed by a partner/ex-partner and 3 women were killed by their sons. The year before, 2012, 4 women were killed by a partner/ex.  That’s 14 women in Manchester killed through men’s violence in two years.

Greater Manchester Police were piloting the domestic violence disclosure scheme, also known as Clare’s Law, from September 2012 to September 2013.  Clare’s Law allows people – of course most of them will be women – to ask the police to check whether a partner – of course most of them will be men – has a violent past. If police checks show that a ‘person’ may be at risk of domestic violence from their partner, the police will consider disclosing the information. The pilot was also supposed look at how the police could proactively release information (‘right to know’) to protect a ‘person’ from domestic violence where lawful, necessary and proportionate.

Linzi Ashton was murdered by Michael Cope nine months in to the Clare’s Law pilot.  We know that Greater Manchester Police knew that Cope was being violent to Linzi, that he had raped her and strangled her.  Through the court we have also learned that he had a known history of violence to two former partners as well as other convictions for violent crimes.  It appears to me that there was ample evidence to suggest that the police should have shared information about Cope with Linzi and should have realised the danger that she was in. Whether they did so or not, Linzi is dead and suffered a brutal painful death.  After her death, there were 108 injuries on Linzi’s body, there were fractures to her right forearm, left elbow, neck, her nose was broken, there were ligature marks to her throat, as well as a cut along her throat. She had been punched, kicked, stamped on, cut with a blade, beaten with a metal pole and strangled with a cable tie.

During the pilot of Clare’s Law, as well as Linzi Ashton, the following women were killed through men’s violence:  Jabeen Younis, 32 was stabbed 19 times by her husband Jahangir Nazar;  Marianne Stones, 58, was strangled by her son Paul Stones, she also had a cut to the nose and bruising on her eye, arms and tongue;  and Zaneta Kindzierska, 32 was stabbed by her husband Krzysztof Kindzierski.  The body of Rania Alayed, 25 has not been found.   Her husband and brother-in-law have been charged with her murder. They both deny the charges and will face trial in April.

The IPCC is investigating Greater Manchester Police’s contact with Linzi Ashton before her death.  I fully expect to see a report showing that ‘lessons have been learned’.   I’m sick of reading that lessons have been learned whilst still women are being killed by violent men.

The basic principle of allowing women to find out if a partner/prospective partner has a violent history is sound.  I’ve spoken to several women who have had violent relationships who have told me that they think it would have made a difference to them, to have what we might call ‘warning signs’ confirmed. But Clare’s Law needs to be resourced and that means investment in, not cuts to, specialist women’s services.

I’m concerned that the government is going for quick fixes and headlines.  The number of women killed though domestic violence has remained consistent for over 10 years. Yet that’s not the whole story.  Approximately one quarter of women killed though men’s violence over the last two years have not been killed by a partner or former partner. The Government has a strategy to end violence against women and girls within which it states that: “The causes and consequences of violence against women and girls are complex. For too long government has focused on violence against women and girls as a criminal justice issue” and yet its actions do not match that commitment.  I launched my campaign ‘counting dead women’ to highlight the extent of the problem of fatal male violence against women and to urge the government to do more to stop this happening.  We need changes to the Criminal Justice System for sure, but we need so much more than that.

Clare’s Law, during its pilot in Manchester, did not prevent the deaths of Linzi Ashton, Jabeen Younis, Marianne Stones, Zaneta Kindzierska and Rania Alayed. Men’s violence against women and girls is a cause and consequence of inequality between women and men. Quick fixes are not the solution.  Clare’s Law, may make a difference to some women who request information, but it’s not enough.  I want to see changes to show that lessons really have been learned and that things are going to be different.  Until then and until the government admits the seriousness of the problem and properly commits to doing  everything it can to understand and end male violence, women will continue to be beaten, raped, abused, controlled and killed by men.

In memory of

Becky Ayres


06 March 2014

Caroline Finegan


16 January 2014

Jabeen Younis


19 April 2013

Marianne Stones


09 June 2013

Zaneta Kindzierska


16 June 2013

Linzi Ashton


29 June 2013

Rania Alayed


Olwen Dohoney


12 November 2013

Aisha Alam


22 November 2013

Glennis Brierley


14 December 2013

Leanne McNuff


11 March 2012

Kelly Davies


02 June 2012

Razu Khanum


08 June 2012

Esther Aragundade


26 June 2012

There are a lot of isolated incidents around

One of the reasons I started counting dead women was hearing a murder of a woman killed referred to as an ‘isolated incident’.  Seven women were killed in the first three days of 2012 and yet connections between these occurrences of men’s fatal violence against women were absent.   It’s little over two years and 275 dead women later, and police are still describing men’s killings of women as isolated incidents.

On Sunday 23rd February 2014, two women, one in her 60s and one in her 40s, as yet unnamed but believed to be mother and daughter, were shot dead.  82 year-old John Lowe has been arrested for their murders.  A Detective Chief Inspector speaking on behalf of Surrey police said:

“We are conducting a full and thorough investigation into the circumstances surrounding these two deaths. However, at this time, we believe this is an isolated incident and there is no further risk to the wider community.”

Which aspect of  their murders was an isolated incident? That they were killed by a man.  Surely not, as stated above 275 women have been killed by men in the last 26 months.  That they were shot?  No, not that either. At least 15 of the 275 women killed were shot .

Less than two weeks earlier, 20 year-old Hollie Gazzard was stabbed  to death. A Police Chief Inspector said

“I would like to reassure members of this community, both residents and local businesses, that this is an isolated incident. These offences don’t happen in Gloucester regularly. This incident was very tragic, however; both victim and suspect knew each other. They were in a previous relationship. That doesn’t lessen this horrific incident but it would be good for us to reassure the local community.”

Again, it’s difficult to see which aspect of Hollie’s murder was isolated.  That she was stabbed?  Definitely not, already in 2014, 6 women have been stabbed to death by men.  In 2013, at least 45 women were stabbed to death and there were 44 in 2012.  That’s 95 women stabbed in 26 months.  Was it that she was stabbed by someone that she had been in a relationship with? Certainly not that, approximately three-quarters of the UK women killed by men since January 2012 have been killed by a partner or former partner.  Perhaps then it’s that Hollie was killed in Gloucestershire.   Gloucestershire wouldn’t be described as a femicide hotspot, though  it’s only 6 months since the body of Jane Wiggett was found dead, her ex-husband has been charged with murder and remanded in custody.  Two women dead in 6 months?  Not so isolated then.

Earlier this year, on 24th January, 17 year-old Elizabeth Thomas was stabbed to death in Oxted, Surrey.  A 16-year-old male, said to be known to her, has been arrested on suspicion of her murder.  The Senior Investigating Officer Detective Chief Inspector said:

“We believe this to be an isolated incident and that there is no risk to the further community.”

It’s difficult to fathom which aspect of Elizabeth’s murder was an isolated incident.  That she was killed by a man known to her? No. That she was stabbed?  No. That she was a teenager?  No, not that either.  Of the 275 women killed since January 2012, she’s the 16th teenager.  Maybe it’s that she lived in affluent Surrey, the county ranked fifth least deprived according to the multiple deprivation index?  Maybe that, after all it’s a long 14 months since 25 year-old Georgina Hackett was bludgeoned to death with a mallet by her boyfriend Daniel Baker.  Yet Elizabeth’s murder was followed only 5 weeks later by the fatal shooting of the two women mentioned earlier. Maybe now, Elizabeth’s murder seems a little less of an isolated incident.

Also earlier this year, 43 year-old Karen Wild was stabbed to death in Hanbury, Worcestershire.  A police  Superintendent said:

“Following this tragic incident, we continue our investigations in and around the house, including searches and forensic examinations.  I would like to reassure the local community that we believe this to be an isolated incident and no-one else is being sought in relation to our investigation.”

What was isolated about Karen Wild’s murder? We know it isn’t because she was killed by a man.  We know it isn’t because she was stabbed.  Worcestershire is another largely affluent area, Worcester district is ranked third least deprived according to the multiple deprivation index.  Maybe all that affluence shortens memories, after-all 3 women – Alethea Taylor, 63; Jacqueline Harrison, 47 and Louise Evans, 32 – were killed though male violence in Worcestershire in 2012.  Could it be that Karen’s son, Lian Wild was arrested and charged with her murder, that marks her killing as an isolated incident?  No, it isn’t that either; Karen Wild is one of at least 32 women who have been killed by their sons since January 2012.

This is not about local communities, affluent or not. It is about women and it is about men.  Are women not a community?  Is our risk through men’s violence unrecognised? It is self-evident that each women killed by a man is a unique individual, as is each man that makes the choice to kill her. The circumstances around each killing are never identical.   But that doesn’t make them isolated incidents.  By refusing to see a pattern we are refusing to see the myriad connections between incidents of men’s fatal violence against women; and by refusing to see the connections we are closing our eyes to the commonalities in the causes. What sort of a message would it send, if, when a man killed a woman, police didn’t refer to an isolated incident but to yet another example of femicide? Yet another example of men’s fatal violence against women. Maybe then, naming male violence,  misogyny, sex-inequality, dangerous rules of gender and patriarchy wouldn’t be restricted to feminists and would become part of a wider understanding.  Maybe then, there would be sufficient motivation to do something about ending men’s fatal violence against women.

Talking about men’s violence (It seems like I’ve been here before)

Anybody pushing a ‘gender neutral’ approach to domestic – or sexual – violence is just a male violence enabler.

Men (mostly, but yes, some women too) don’t seem to like it when we talk about men’s violence against women.  The responses are nothing new and as yet never original,  so, as a result, I’ve written this to save me the bother of repeating the same thing over and over again because I am not going to stop talking about men’s violence against women and I don’t suppose men are going to stop finding that objectionable.  If I have sent you a link to this piece, it’s because

a) you have suggested that I don’t care about male victims

b) you refuse to accept than the extent of differences between men’s and women’s use of violence or the effects of that violence

c) you’re interpreting what I say as ‘all men are violent’

d) you’ve found it necessary to point out that women can be violent too

c) you have made some nonsense comment about feminism,  or

d) some combination of the above.

I want to see an end to men’s violence against women.  I’m campaigning to raise awareness of men’s fatal violence against women and for action to increase our understanding of the reasons behind the differences in men and women’s use of violence and their victimisation, so that we can reduce men’s violence against women.

Women who are murdered are most likely to have been murdered by a man.  Men who are murdered are most likely to have been murdered by a man.  Men are more likely to be violent than women.  Not all men are murderers, not all men are violent. Some women are murderers, some women are violent.

Gender and gender differences – the ways that many of us behave in ways that are seen as being like a ‘typical man’ or a ‘typical woman’ – are socially constructed.  They are not biological, they are not inevitable.  Not all women and not all men conform or want to conform to these gender differences, many of us sometimes do and sometimes don’t. Because gender differences are socially constructed, it means we can change them.  The stereotypical gender differences between women and men are a way of keeping women and men unequal. At the same time, different doesn’t have to mean unequal.

All men benefit from inequality between women and men.  This doesn’t mean that some women are not in more advantageous positions than some men. It doesn’t mean all men are the same.  It doesn’t mean that all women are the same.   It doesn’t mean that sex is the only important basis for inequality.  It doesn’t mean that everyone wants it to be that way.

Men’s violence against women is a cause and consequence of inequality between women and men. It doesn’t have to be that way. If enough of us decide to do things differently we can change the world.  Men don’t have to be violent, towards women or other men. Men can end male violence if enough of them want to.  The thing is, this won’t happen if too many men – and/or women – refuse to see that men’s violence is a problem.  The changes that will reduce men’s violence against women will also reduce men’s violence against other men, they will probably also reduce women’s violence.

I want to see an end to men’s violence against women.  What this means is “I want to see an end to men’s violence against women.”  It doesn’t mean that I do not care about other forms of violence.  It doesn’t mean that I do not feel any compassion towards male victims of violence.  It doesn’t mean that I don’t care  or that I celebrate if men are killed – and that is true whether they’re killed by a woman, or, as is more likely, by another man.

A straw man argument  is misrepresentation of someone else’s position to make it easier to attack or undermine that position.  When men – and it usually is men, but not always – attack me for caring about women killed though men’s violence, by suggesting that this means I don’t care about men who are victims of violence (whether from women, or as more likely, other men), they’re using a straw man argument.  They saying that because I care about men killing women, I can’t care about men who are killed, to attack the fact that I care about women who are killed. This may or may not be, as suggested by a friend of mine, Louise Pennington, because they do not care when men kill women. The thing is, whether they intend it or not, their attacks and their refusal to accept men’s violence as the  problem means that it is less likely that we’ll be able to make the changes that will make us all safer.  And even though men kill more men that they kill women, who benefits from things staying the same? Yep.  Men. Even the nice ones.

More British women killed though men’s violence last year than British troops killed in Afghanistan in the last 3 years

Nigella Lawson used the phrase  ‘intimate terrorism’ to describe her abuse from Charles Saatchi in court in December last year.  It is a derivative of the more useful term ‘patriarchal terrorism’ which captures not only that men are overwhelmingly the perpetrators and women the victims,  but the wider cultural context – patriarchy – in which men’s violence against women takes place.  The concept of terrorism reminds us that abuse is physical and deadly but also about coercion and  reinforcing ideologies of dominance.

The UK’s military role against the Taliban in Afghanistan has claimed the lives of 99 members of the Army, RAF, Royal Marines and special forces in the last three years.  Regardless of, and not discounting the arguments for or against British military intervention and also not wishing to denigrate the death of even one person –  military or civilian, or  on either side –  the deaths of British military personnel are far outnumbered by the deaths of  140 women in the UK who were killed though men’s violence in one year alone.

I started keeping the list of the names of women killed in January 2012.   Many people know the statistic than ‘two women a week are killed through domestic violence in England and Wales ‘ but I thought keeping a list of the names of women killed made the horror of what is happening feel more real.  Since I started the list, I’ve counted 264 dead women: 120 in 2012, 140 in 2013 and already 4 in 2014.

When I started keeping the list, I was shocked and angry about the lack of attention given to the murders of women, and what feels like a refusal to look at the links between the different forms of men’s violence against women. It’s not only women being killed by their partners or ex-partners but by their sons, grandsons, fathers, business associates, as well as by rapists and robbers.

I launched a campaign “Counting Dead Women” because I want to see a fit-for-purpose record of fatal male violence against women. Unless we have an accurate picture of what is going on and make connections between the different forms of sexist murders, we will not stop men killing women.  264 dead women later and I’m not going to stop counting and naming the women killed until official records are being kept and the government is doing everything that it can. I’m asking anyone who feels the same and who hasn’t already done so to sign my petition demanding change.

I’d like to thank @thedwellproject for the analogy to British military deaths in Afghanistan in this post by Eddie. For Our Daughters have also compared women killed though male violence to British troops in Afghanistan, Iraq and N. Ireland.  

Is it so shocking to believe that women should be able to get blind drunk without being raped?

Offensive? The poster warning against binge drinking

In December, I spoke to the Yorkshire Post about the above poster produced by Calderdale Council.  Anti sexual-violence posters are regularly produced by police forces to celebrate Christmas, a collection of which are reviewed in this piece by Ending Victimisation and Blame.  Campaign messages are not neutral.  They can either reinforce or challenge accepted narratives.  Calderdale’s poster, like too many others, reinforces the message that women should be held responsible for what happens to them.

Though the poster doesn’t explicitly mention rape,  the lines “when you drink too much you lose control and put yourself at risk” together with an image of a dishevelled young woman in a short dress, make clear that the risk is that of sexual violence. The article was picked up widely re-reported including in The Independent and Daily Mail and eventually discussed in a piece by Sarah Vine under the title “Sorry sisters, but girls who get blind drunk ARE risking rape” in which she stated her  refusal to join “the chorus of feminist disapproval” and argued that women need to take responsibility for their own safety, going on to mention “one or two nasty brushes” that made her realise how important it was to not willingly put herself in the path of danger and “stupidly” becoming a victim.

The concept of a victim of violence ‘willingly and stupidly putting themselves in the path of danger’ is judgemental victim blaming.  Whether though an act of choosing  or not choosing to do something, a victim of sexual violence is never responsible for what is done to them. Rapists and abusers are the only ones responsible for rape and abuse.

Rapists and abusers use excuses to justify their actions,  to discredit their victims and to shift responsibility for their choices away from themselves and on to their victims.  They use exactly the kind of excuses encapsulated in the Calderdale poster and Vine’s piece, in short: “She didn’t take care. “ or “She was asking for it.”

The government estimates that there are around 78,000 rapes in the UK every year, that’s 214 every day. On top of this, there are an estimated 476,000 other sexual offences. Women and girls make up the vast majority of victims and 95% of those who experience serious sexual assault identify the offender as male. Most – but not all –  victims of sexual violence and abuse are stone cold sober when they are abused.  Those who are drunk or intoxicated through drug use are no more deserving of abuse. Most (an estimated 91%) victims of rape and sexual violence know their attacker before they are abused.  45% of rape victim/survivors identifying a current partner   as the rapist, a further 11% identifying a date and yet a further 11% identifying a former partner.  It’s hard to see how Christmas and New Year sobriety would make any difference to these women.

Sex with a person whose judgement is impaired – for example through alcohol or drugs – means they are legally unable to consent.  Non-consensual sex is rape.  If Calderdale Council want to run a useful campaign related to increased alcohol consumption around Christmas and New Year, they might consider  addressing this issue instead. It’s hard for me to imagine that their poster would prevent any woman from drinking.  Perhaps I’m naive to the powers of persuasion of a public awareness campaign. It isn’t so difficult to imagine a victim of rape who had been drunk, who had been partying, who had been wearing a short sequined dress seeing the poster and questioning her own responsibility.  Self-blame, shame, fearing that she will not be believed and questioning whether what happened was rape are  all reasons that contribute to an estimated 79-85% of rapes not being reported. If rapes are not reported, who benefits? Rapists whose behaviour goes unpunished and who are free to rape again.  That’s why I said the only ones who are helped by the Calderdale posters are rapists.  They’re provided with victim blaming excuses and are less likely to be held to account when victim/survivors are deterred from reporting

Calderdale’s poster will not reduce sexual violence, neither will it assist victims.  If Calderdale Council want to reduce sexual violence, then they need to focus on men and boys.  The West Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioners’ September 2013 Quarterly Performance Report details that reports of sexual offences increased by 51.1% in the 12 months to June 2013. The report identifies that this is the largest increase across all police forces and compares to a national average increase of 8.9%.  . Men, boys, women, girls, policy makers, support providers need to understand the concepts of consent and coercion.  Consent alone is not enough, but must always be understood in the context of coercion at both the individual and societal level.   Clearly there is much to be done.

If Calderdale Council want to better support victims of sexual violence, then they might want to consider funding local specialist women’s support services.  It is interesting that on the council’s web-page for information and support on rape, sexual assault and sexual abuse the services listed are in Manchester, Huddersfield and Wakefield – none of which are in Calderdale. Does the council  provide or fund any specialist services for victims of sexual violence?  Calderdale Council may also like to consider whether future campaigns support victims and ensure that they challenge not reinforce self-blame, shame and victim blaming.  At the same time as Calderdale Council ran their victim-blaming campaign, the police force responsible for Calderdale, West Yorkshire Police, were running an appeal to increase reporting of sexual violence.  I’d happily raise my glass to the Assistant Chief Constable Ingrid Lee, who, taking quite a different approach to that of the council , is quoted as saying :

 “Sadly society at times has negative perceptions about sexual offending and these perceptions allow sexual crime to go unreported and offenders to go unpunished, we need to change those perceptions by providing people with information that enables them to understand better the nature of the problem and what it is that constitutes rape or other sexual violence.

“And that is why my commitment is to the victims of this dreadful crime that, if they come forward and tell us what has happened, we will not only do all we can to bring the offender to justice but also with our partners provide support and counsel to help them through what is a very difficult and distressing time.

Men’s violence against women and girls is a cause and consequence of inequality between women and men. Restricting women’s movement and choices and putting responsibility for men’s violence against women and girls on to women and girls will never reduce men’s violence.