Is it enough if a person in a position of responsibility apologises for an offensive joke?

Steve Reddy Liverpool Domestic Abuse Strategic Lead and mother-in-law jokes about women’s suspicious deaths

Steve Reddy, Director of Liverpool City Council Children & Young People Services and Domestic Abuse Strategic Lead tweeted the following ‘joke’:

“Friday [clown face emoji]. Mrs R still angry with me because I didn’t open the car door to help her mother out. But as I’ve said – I just panicked and swam to the surface! Compounded this somewhat by the wreath I ordered in the shape of a lifebelt – but it’s what she would have wanted…” (9 April 2021)

Angela Clarke, on twitter Angela Madigan, Liverpool City Council Domestic Abuse and Domestic Homicide Review Commissioner doesn’t seem to think so, if her response: “Back with a vengeance“ is anything to go by. And to which Reddy ‘oh-so-humorously’ responded “Cheers mate, I did it again.”

Liverpool’s independent specialist domestic abuse service, (LDAS), didn’t share the amusement and asked the Chair of the domestic abuse strategy group why he was using Bernard Manning humour about women dying.

After trying to justify himself, Reddy replaced the subject of his joke with his father-in-law, before also deleting this second version, shortly after he said that he apologised unreservedly for any offence caused, it was absolutely not his intention.

Mother-in-law jokes are or were a misogynistic trope of the UK mainstream cultural fabric. They position younger men as normative and socially valuable, whilst positioning older women as the antithesis to this, disdainful and other, whilst reminding younger women of their destiny as disposable objects of ridicule with patriarchal best-before dates and signalling to younger heterosexual men that they should be wary of what their female partner may become. As LDAS pointed out, mother-in-law jokes belong in the dustbin of entertainment from the 1970s when sexist, racist humour was a lazy prop for sexist racist comedians like Manning.  But the stereotype endures.

The Femicide Census found that 13 women in the UK had been killed by the partner or ex-partner of their daughter between 2009 and 2018, (in other words, 13 men killed women who were or had been their mother-in-law or equivalent), just over one percent of all women killed by men in the UK. More extreme than mother-in-law jokes, certainly, but not unconnected. Societal norms and values can either create a conducive context for men’s violence against women or they can challenge and deconstruct. Mother-in-law jokes in particular and the normalisation of men’s violence against women and the perceived different social value of women and men (sex inequality) are the backdrop of these men’s murderous intent and actions.

Between 2009 and 2018, 43 women in Merseyside were killed by men. They include 28-year-old Jade Hales and her mum, Karen Hales, 53, making Karen one of the 13 women who were mother-in-laws noted above. In 2016, Anthony Showers, 42, broke into his ex-partner Jade’s home and killed and raped her and killed her mother, his ex-mother-in-law, Karen, who was disabled and needed a frame to walk, by bludgeoning both women to death with a hammer. This year, Merseyside MPs held an emergency meeting called by Labour MP Paula Barker, after three women, Helen Joy, Rose Marie Tinton and N’Taya Elliott Cleverley, were killed in one weekend in January. Surely, this alone should mean that Liverpool’s senior council officials recognised – for themselves – that women’s suspicious deaths were not an appropriate subject matter for humour. It is inconceivable that the person who commissions domestic homicide reviews in the city was unaware of this.

Merseyside police reported an increase in reports of domestic abuse of 10.4 per cent – equivalent to 18,782 victims – between April 1 and November 30 2020, compared to the same period the year before.Yvonne Roberts, writing for the Observer, reported that in the last year LDAS, Liverpool’s specialist independent service for women,  has seen a 145% increase in demand for counselling and group-based support and the highest number of self-referrals in its 15-year history. Yet this specialist independent service of experts has increasingly found themselves frozen out by Liverpool City Council and council funded services for women victims of domestic violence and abuse in the city are provided by a national provider that does not have a specific focus on women victims of men’s violence. YSadly this commissioning pattern, ignoring decades of research that show that women victim-survivors of men’s violence are best served and feel safer using  specialist independent local women-led services and moreover, ignoring that women are the vast majority of victims of domestic and sexual violence, has been seen across the UK for more than a decade.  If a woman in Liverpool looks for domestic abuse support on Liverpool City Council’s website, the first ‘service’ she will see is that for ‘Ask Ani’, a national scheme much vaunted by the government, whereby women can approach any one of 2,500 pharmacies and ask for Ani. In contrast to the experience of Liverpool’s specialist service and those of specialist independent women’s charities across the country, the Ask Ani scheme, with its 2,500 access points, has attracted less that one woman a week across the entire country since its launch in January. Women who are subjected to men’s violence reach out to those they trust. It doesn’t look to me like Ask Ani is it. When abused women don’t access services, it doesn’t mean that abuse isn’t happening, it’s much more likely to mean that  (if they know about the service) they don’t think it can or will help.  

Men’s fatal violence against women isn’t the only reason that Liverpool has made the national news this year. Girls at Broughton Hall Catholic High School, in West Derby, Liverpool, were advised to wear shorts under their skirts after male pupils were allegedly caught taking photos up their skirts as they used a transparent glass staircase. The school had previously taken swift action to address its concerns that females were wearing inappropriate pencil skirts by sending them home. Evidently the school expects females to take responsibility for the male gaze and sexual harassment.

Steve Reddy, Director of Liverpool City Council Children & Young People Services and Domestic Abuse Strategic Lead, also has form with his regard to his antipathy to recognising the critical importance of sex differences with regards to sexual and domestic violence and abuse. In 2018, Steve Reddy’s first act, as Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) Strategy Lead was to propose that the VAWG strategic group was renamed because  (to quote from his own email)  the “remit and scope did not sufficiently capture the breadth of issues involved in domestic abuse – particularly in terms of male victims.”

The United Nations recognises that (men’s) violence against women in public and private life impedes the ability of women and girls to claim, realize [SIC] and enjoy their human rights on an equal foot with men. Is it enough if someone in a position of responsibility apologises for an offensive joke? One of the things I’d want to know is whether ‘the joke’ chimes or contrasts with their track record. We can all say or do things that we regret and don’t really mean when we reflect on them later. But it’s not the only question. What if that person has a lead role with regards to the protection of the demographic that is the subject of said joke? What if violence – including fatal violence – against that demographic has reached unprecedented levels? What if that person’s track record is one of undermining the human rights abuses of and specialist provision for that subjugated demographic? Then, no, whether causing offence was the intention or not, I don’t think it is good enough.

On 13 April, Reddy announced that he was standing down as chair of Liverpool Domestic Abuse Strategy Group.

Trauma-Informed Services for Women Subjected to Men’s Violence Must be Single-Sex Services

For many women and girls, the boundaries between domestic and sexual violence and abuse, are very much blurred. For some this abuse includes prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation too.

It’s not unusual for women who’ve been subjected to men’s violence to develop a trauma response. These sometimes develop after a single incident of violence, particularly with regards to sexual violence, though sometimes it can develop after years or months of living in fear, walking on egg-shells, recognising that tone of voice, that look in the eyes, that sigh, that pause, that silence, that change in his breathing. Some women have lived this, with a succession of perpetrators starting from their dad – who may have been physically, sexually or emotionally violent, abusive and controlling or a mixture of them all – all their lives.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can develop in response to trauma that may have occurred recently or in the distant past. Those who have experienced sexual trauma, especially whilst young are at greater risk, with victims of multiple forms of childhood abuse and neglect most at risk of lifetime trauma[i] Women victim-survivors of child sexual abuse are at least twice as likely to experience adult sexual victimisation[ii]. 51% of adults who were abused as children experienced domestic abuse in later life and approximately one in six adults who were abused as a child had been subjected to domestic violence and abuse in the previous year[iii].

Studies of women involved in prostitution found that between 63-80% reported being subjected violence in the course of being prostituted[iv]. One study found that women in prostitution were murdered at a rate 12 times above that of non-prostituted women[v]. Many women in prostitution describe sexual encounters as non-consensual, coerced or economically coerced rape. Two-Thirds of women in prostitution suffer PTSD.[vi]

After trauma, the brain can be triggered by something that would barely register for someone else, interpreting something that for many people would be unthreatening as a serious threat or danger, for example the presence of a man, particularly where not expected.

PTSD/trauma responses happen in a part of the brain called the amygdala. The amygdala detects a threat or perceived threat and can activate a “fight or flight” response.  This releases adrenaline, norepinephrine, and glucose into the body, and if the threat continues, cortisol. A part of the prefrontal cortex (an area in the front of the brain that processes emotions and behavioural reactions) assesses the threat and can either calm or reinforce the fight or flight response. People suffering trauma/PTSD have a hyper reactive amygdala and a less effective calming prefrontal cortex reaction. The brain becomes overwhelmed by the trauma (pre-frontal cortex shutdown) leading to disorientation and confusion as the higher brain functions of reasoning and language are disrupted.  Thinking and reasoning can be drowned out by feeling and being. Prolonged stress can lead to permanent change in the prefrontal cortex.

A trauma-informed safe space creates space for action and recovery from violence and abuse and places the woman victim-survivor in control and in the centre. The trauma response described earlier is the antithesis of a space for action and recovery, so a trauma informed approach is based on understanding the physical, social, and emotional impact of trauma caused by experiencing violence and abuse. A trauma-informed service for women understands the importance of creating an environment – physical and relational – that feels safe to victims-survivors in all the ways I’ve just mentioned. For many women this means excluding men from their recovery space, and yes, this includes those who don’t identify as men.  Their behaviour, the likelihood that they themselves may be abusive, is not relevant. If it is not women-only, it is not trauma informed for women who have been subjected to men’s violence.

We know that at least 80% of males who hold a gender recognition certificate retain their penis, but anyway, in almost every case, we don’t need to know what’s in their pants to know they are a man. Women experiencing trauma after violence and abuse will, like most of us – almost always instantly read someone who might be the most kind and gentle trans identified male in the world – as male; and they may experience a debilitating trauma response as a result. It’s not their fault, it’s not a choice and it’s not something they can be educated out of. It’s not hate. It’s not bigotry. It’s not transphobia. It is an impact of abuse and they need space, support and sometimes therapy – not increased confrontation with a trauma inducing trigger; not nowhere to go that offers a woman-only space.

To properly heal from trauma, in particular that caused by sexual violence, a course of counselling/therapy from a counsellor/therapist specially trained to deal with trauma/PTSD from sexual or domestic violence and abuse is often needed. Unfortunately, far too few women are offered this opportunity. Specialist women-led women-only organisations supporting victim-survivors of men’s violence are rarely funded to the extent that we can meet the levels of need that exist. All too often we’re contracted to do what commissioners value, this isn’t always what women want and need.

Women should not need to justify our desire for or the benefits of women-only space on the basis of violence perpetrated upon us or our sisters but we should recognise that some women need or benefit from it more than others. Not all women who are subjected to men’s violence and abuse will develop a trauma response. Not all women will be subjected to men’s violence and abuse, though globally one in three are at some point during our lifetime. Not all women who have been abused by men want women-only spaces but should they then take away the right of that space from those who do?

Of course, women who experience trauma/PTSD as a result of men’s violence are required to function in a world where men are present and for the most part, do. But women-only spaces in Rape Crisis Centres, refuges, women’s centres or women-only buildings or events, etc are spaces where women are not required to make all the mental self-adjustments to function in the presence of men. Women survivors and feminists (many of us both) created these spaces because we know how important this is. Somewhere we can function and feel OK, safe, maybe even relaxed and with our defences down and our vigilance switch turned low. Women who have been subjected to men’s violence deserve this down time, this head space.  Women-only space for women who have been subjected to men’s violence and abuse is something that must be protected by those of us who don’t need it, for those of us who do.


[i] Widom et al. 2008.
[ii] Classen, Palesh, & Aggarwal, 2005
[iii] ONS Impact of child abuse on later life, Crime Survey for England and Wales, year ending March 2016
[iv] Kinnell, 1993; Barnard et al., 2002, Campbell & Stoops, 2010
[v]Ward, Day & Weber, 1999
[vi] Farley, 1998.

We need to stop the hierarchy of dead women

2 British women and a third who had lived in London for 20 years went missing abroad within 6 days. All  three were found dead within 6 days.

130 Karen Cleary-BrownThis is Karen Cleary-Brown. She was 44 years old and had lived in Islington, N, London for 20 years. She had been missing in Jamaica since 25 November.  She was found dead on 3rd December.  A man who was working on her property has been charged with her murder.


130 barbara FindleyThis is Barbara Findley. She was 58 and from Kennington, S. London but had lived in Jamaica for the last 5 years. She was reported missing on 29 November. She was found dead on 5 December.



130 Grace Millane

This is Grace Millane. She was 22 and from Essex.  She went missing on 1st December whilst travelling in New Zealand. She was found dead on 9 December.  A 26-year-old male, who has been granted name suppression whilst awaiting trial, has appeared in court  in relation to her death.



How many of those names did you know? How many of their photos had you seen?

The killing of Grace Millane is an atrocity, but no more so than the killings of Karen Clearly-Brown and Barbara Findley, no more so than the (at least) 127 other UK women suspected to have been killed by men (or where a man or men are the principal suspects) so far this year.

Karen Cleary-Brown, Barbara Findley and Grace Millane – 3 missing women, 3 women found dead.

The killings of women who are not young, not white, not killed on holiday, not killed by a stranger should  be no less shocking or upsetting. They are not less worthy of media or public attention or mourning. We need to stop the hierarchy of dead women.


127 women


170 women killed by men (or where a man is the principal suspect) in 360 days.

  1. 3 January 2018: Elizabeta Lacatusu, 44, was killed by 19 knife injuries to her chest and neck inflicted by her former partner, Genu Armeanu, 45, whom she had left the previous month.
  2. 5 January 2018: Terrie-Anne Jones, 52, was stabbed 26 times by her partner John Lewis, 56. Her injuries included an 8cm deep stab wound to her heart, 13 to her neck, three to her collarbone, and two to her chest, with defence wounds to both hands.
  3. 8 January 2018: Claire Tavener, 27, was stabbed 10 times with a lock-knife – including two to the neck and two to the chest by her husband Andrew Tavener, 45, who had been violent and abusive to her during their relationship.
  4. 9 January 2018: Julie Clark, 59, was found dead at home, she had died of stab wounds. Jason Nellist, 40, has been charged with her murder.
  5. 10 Jan 2018: Geraldine Mellor, 32, was strangled to death by her boyfriend of 6 months,  Darrell Rose, 36.
  6. 12 January 2018: Amelia Blake, 22, was killed whist travelling in Australia by her boyfriend Brazil Gurung, 33, who also killed himself.
  7. 13 January 2018: Cassie Hayes, 28, was killed by Andrew Burke, 30, the ex-partner of her girlfriend. He slit her throat.
  8. 24 January 2017: Claire Harris, 44, was killed by her ex- partner Ricardo Wilson, 50, whom she had allowed to stay in the flat she rented whilst he looked for a new home. She had suffered 86 injuries – half of them to her head and face.
  9. 26 January 2018: Cheryl Gabriel-Hooper, 51, was shot dead. A 45-year-old man was also injured was arrested on suspicion of murder. Cheryl had recently separated from her 45-year-old husband John Hooper.
  10. 29 January 2018: Janet Scott was stabbed by her ex-boyfriend Simon Mellors, she survived the attack but he ran her over and killed her as she tried to flee. Mellors had killed a former partner, Pearl Black in 1999 and killed Janet whist on licence.
  11. 29 January 2018: Agnieszka Swierczynska-Jaros, 37 died of multiple organ failure in a house fire that had been started deliberately. 2 men were arrested on suspicion of arson with the intent to cause harm but were released due to lack of evidence. In her inquest the coroner said that he believed witnesses had been untruthful and was convinced that the fire was a deliberate act as there were two start points and traces of fuel throughout the house.
  12. 29 January 2018: Paula Harris, 44, was strangled to death by her partner Michael Foster, 39.
  13. 6 February 2017: Ruksana Begum, 47, was stabbed by Mohammed Tafham, 30, the former boyfriend of her daughter. Tafham attempted to make it look like she had killed herself by placing the knife in her hand. She had suffered three major stab wounds to the front of her body and one of them passed right through her heart. A pathologist told the jury it would have been ‘very difficult’ for Mrs Begum to have done that herself.
  14. 10 February 2018: Samantha Archer, 43, was injected with heroin by her boyfriend Andrew Williams who has been found guilty of manslaughter. Williams claims that she consented but also told officers he had pushed Ms Archer on to a settee “to calm her down” and that he had given her more than usual.
  15. 13 February 2018: Saeeda Hussain, 54, suffered serious head injuries and was found dead at home. Muhammed Javed, 58, has been charged with murder.
  16. 13 February 2108: Danielle Richardson, 24, was stabbed 15 times in her face, neck and back by her boyfriend Michael Marler, 37.
  17. 16 Feb 2018: Sarbjit Kaur, 38, was found dead at home after what was set up to look like a botched robbery. She had been asphyxiated. Three months later, her husband Gurpreet Singh, 42, was been charged with her murder
  18. 17 February 2018: Jill Sadler, 58, was found strangled by her husband David Sadler, 61.
  19. 18 February 2018: Heather Jordan, 34, was strangled by Martin Corns, 52. Corns was a workmate who had been harassing and stalking Heather for some time. She had told him that she did not want a relationship with him.
  20. 21 February 2018: Lynn McNally, 46, died of multiple stab wounds inflicted by her partner Paul Beddoes, 44.
  21. 22 February 2018: Charlotte Teeling, 33, was last seen alive and was reported missing 4 days later. She was found dead on 2 March. She had been killed by Richard Bailey, 40, who had a string of violent offences against women.
  22. 25 February 2018: Mary Ragoobeer, 46, her 2 sons and 2 other women were killed in an explosion in a shop below the Ragoobeer’s’ flat. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  23. 25 February 2018: Leah Reek, 18, and 4 others were killed in an explosion which destroyed a shop and the flat above it. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  24. 25 February 2018: Viktoria Ijevleva, 22, and 4 others were killed in an explosion which destroyed a shop and the flat above it. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  25. 27 February 2018: Denise also know as Crystal Gossett, who has in her 40s and her daughter Diane, 19, (below) son Edward, 16 and Diane’s young daughter, were killed in house fire. Daniel Allen, 27, has been charged with four counts of murder and one count of arson with intent to cause danger to life.
  26. 27 February 2018: Sabrina also known as Elektra Gossett, 19, her daughter, mother (above) and brother, were killed in a house fire. Daniel Allen, 27, has been charged with four counts of murder and one count of arson with intent to cause danger to life.
  27. 27 February 2018: Laura Huteson, 21, was stabbed in the throat by Jason Gaskell, 23. Previous partners of Gaskell said that he had a history of violent sadomasochist sex.
  28. 28 February 2018: Anne James, 74, was stabbed more than 40 times in her head and back by Her grandson, Jason Gaskell, 23.
  29. Julie Reilly was sat seen alive on 6thFebruary 2018. Her disappearance became a murder investigation as parts of her body were found in April. Andrew Wallace, 41, has been charged with her murder.
  30. 5 March 2018: Laura Figueira de Farida, 47, was found stabbed to death at home shortly after the bodies of her husband Adelino Figueira de Farida, 57, and two sons aged 7 and 10, were found at the bottom of cliffs. Police say they believe she was and the children were murdered and are not looking for anyone else.
  31. 5 March 2018: Angela Rider, 51, was killed by Adrian Rodi, 51. It is not clear whether they had any connection.
  32. 6 March 2018: Fiona Scourfield, 54, was killed by her 16-year-old stepson Reuben Braithwaite who battered her head with an axe before slitting her throat with a Samuri sword.
  33. 15 March 2018: Hope Barden, 20, died of asphyxiation during a sex-act on the internet paid for by Jerome Danger, 45. Danger was a regular on-line sex forum user preoccupied with strangulation, stabbing, torture and death. He was due to be questioned in relation to Hope’s death whilst serving a 14-month prison sentence for possession of pornography consisting of “the worst images it is possible to image” when he was found dead.
  34. 17 March 2018: Jennifer Rogers, 56, was stabbed to death by her husband Peter Rogers, 61.
  35. 16 March 2018: Michelle Savage, 32, and her mum Heather Whitbread, 53, were shot dead by Michelle’s ex-husband Paul Savage.
  36. 16 March 2018: Heather Whitbread, 53, and her daughter Michelle Savage, 32, were shot dead by Michelle’s ex-husband Paul Savage.
  37. 21 March 2018: Diane Jones, 62, was stuck with a claw hammer wielded by her son Wayne Beer, 42. Her skull was fractured in several places.
  38. 30 March 2018: Jenny Cronin, 72, was doused in fuel and set alight by her ex-son-in-law Kieran Lynch, who also killed himself in the attack.
  39. 30 March 2018: Leyla Mtumwa, 36, was strangled then stabbed at least 49 times in her  head, neck, body and arms by her husband Kema Salum, 38. Salum had been extremely violent to a previous partner.
  40. 31 March 2018: Ourania Lambrou, 80, died after being pushed to the ground by Harry Goodwin-Sim, 29. She hit her head and died of a brain haemorrhage, which was caused by the assault.
  41. 2 April 2018: Tanesha Melbourne, 17, died in her mother’s arms after having been shot in a drive-by shooting.
  42. 6 April 2018: Tracy Stonehouse, 51, was battered repeatedly around the head, strangled her and then stabbed her six times by her husband Arthur Stonehouse, 73.
  43. 7 April 2018: Lesley Potter, 66, was strangled by her husband Derek Potter, 63. He attempted to make her death look like suicide but confessed to killing her to a colleague.
  44. 10 April 2018: Alexis Flynn, 42, died after having been stabbed to death, allegedly by her ex-partner, David Payne, 51. He was also charged with punching her on the face and body, putting his hands round her neck and compressing in February this year.
  45. 12 April 2018: Viktorija Sokolova, 14, was raped and killed through blunt force trauma to her head. She was found dead a day after being reported missing. A 16-year-old male has been charged with rape and murder.
  46. 12 April 2018: Margaret Howlett, 63, was stabbed to death by her husband of less approximately 1 year, David Pawluk, 59.
  47. 13 April 2018: Maryna Kavaliauskas, 35, was strangled to death with a ligature.
  48. 14 April 2018: Angela Craddock, 40, was beaten to death and died of blunt force trauma inflicted by her partner William Smart,54, who had just been released from prison for a previous assault on her. She had over 100 injuries and was so badly injured she had to be identified by her fingerprints
  49. 15 April 2018: Natasha Hill, 18, died of a head injury. Her partner Scott Clifford,33, was found guilty of her murder and a further two counts of actual bodily harm and one of common assault relating to incidents prior. She had 53 injuries including black eyes and a fractured skull.  He will serve 17 years and 165 days in prison.
  50. 15 April 2018: Samantha Clarke, 38, was stabbed to death. Jordan Clarke, 21, believed to be her nephew, has been charged with her murder.
  51. 18 April 2018: Jennifer Morgan, 33, was stabbed to death. Her partner, Hugh Baird, 39, was charged with her murder.
  52. 19 April 2018: Cecilia Seddon’s body was found concealed in a mattress in a property in Penzance, she had last been seen on 13 April. Clayton Hawkes, 52, with whom she was in a casual relationship, and Blaze Fisher, 25, were charged with perverting the course of justice. Hawkes was also charged with injecting her with a noxious substance (heroin and cocaine).  Her body was so badly decomposed when it was found that it was impossible to identify the cause of her death. She was 32.
  53. 20 April 2018: Julie Hunt, 47, was found seriously hurt after being attacked and died of her injuries. Florin Ion, 31, has been charged with her murder.
  54. 21 April 2018: Betty Lyons, 85, was strangled by her husband George Lyons, 88, who then killed himself. Her death was recorded as unlawful killing.
  55. 22 April 2018: Hollie Kerrell, 28, was reported missing and later found dead, buried in a shallow grave. Her husband of 5 years from who she had recently separated, Christopher Kerrell, 35, used a hammer to batter the right side of her head before strangling her.
  56. 26 April 2018: Elizabeth Lacey, 63, was stabbed to death.  Her son, Christopher Lacey, 21, has been detained under the Mental Health Act in relation to her death.
  57. 26 April 2018: Joleen Corr was attacked by her boyfriend Michael O’Connor, 23, in December 2016. She was left brain damaged and in severe pain, requiring 24-hour care. She died, aged 27, after a landmark court ruling that she should no longer be kept alive.
  58. 27 April 2018: Fiona Fisher, 51, was stabbed by her son Thomas Fisher,
  59. 28 April 2018: Faye Caliman, 30 was stabbed 12 times by her husband Marian Caliman in her face, neck, stomach, heart and back, where part of the blade snapped off. He who filmed himself slapping and shouting abuse at her before he killed her.
  60. 30 April 2018: Nicola Roberts, 44, was bludgeoned unconscious by her ex-husband Neil Barass, 45, before he stabbed her to death and then killed himself.
  61. Mihrican Mustafa, 38, was found dead in East London on 26 April 2019, she had been reported missing by her family in May 2018.
  62. 13 May 2018: Onees Khatoon, 71, was strangled by her son, Majid Butt, 51.
  63. 13 May 2020: Sarah Clayton, 21, was found dead in a tent on a campsite in East Sussex. In November 2020, her fiancé Christopher Cole, whom she had been seeing since February, was charged with her murder.
  64. 14 May 2018: Jessica Patel, 34, was found dead after suffering serious injuries. Her husband Mitesh Patel, 36, has been charged with her murder.
  65. 15 May 2018: Rosina Coleman, 85, was killed through blunt force trauma to her head and neck inflicted with a hammer. 65-year-old ‘handyman’ Paul Prause has been charged with her murder.
  66. 18 May 2018: Bernadette Green, 88, was found dead. Her death was not initially thought to be suspicious, but after post mortem tests, her son John Green, 65, was charged with her murder.
  67. 20 May 2018: Sophie Cavanagh, 31, was found dead. An autopsy found that she had died of compression to the neck. Her estranged husband, Martin Cavanagh, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  68. 20 May 2018: Angela Conoby, 54, stabbed to death by her partner of more than 30 years, Peter Stagis, 60.
  69. 25 May 2018: Christina Abbotts, 29, was found bludgeoned to death in her bed after failing to turn up at celebrations planned for her birthday. Zahid Naseem, 47, has been found guilty of her murder.
  70. 28 May 2018: Laura Mortimer, 31, and her 11-year-old daughter Ella Dalby, were stabbed to death by Christopher Boon, an ex-partner of Laura.. Police said Boon had a history of violence and in 2010 he was handed a suspended sentence for attacking a former partner and her mother.
  71. 29 May 2018: Denise Rosser, 38, was found dead at home where she had been beaten to death. She had recently told friends that she was frightened to go home. Simon Winston, 49, has been charged with her murder.
  72. 29 May 2018: Joanne Bishop, 39, died in hospital 4 days after her partner Shane Clarke, 52, stabbed her 29 times with a screwdriver.
  73. 31 May 2018: Jill Hibberd, 71, was stabbed to death. Lee Fueleop, 40, has been charged with murder, theft and burglary.
  74. Mihrican Mustafa, 38, was found dead in East London on 26 April 2019, she had been reported missing by her family in May 2018.
  75. In May 2017, Mary Gregory, 94, died in hospital due to smoke inhalation after a fire at her home in Lancashire. In November 2021, her son’s stepson, Tiernan Danton, 21, was found guilty of her murder. He disabled the fire alarm, impeded her exit and started the fire.
  76. 1 June 2018: Andra Hilitanu, 28, suffered multiple injuries including a fatal neck wound. Her unborn child also died in the attack. Her boyfriend,  Ioan Campeanu, 43, has been charged with her murder.
  77. 6 June 2018: Zofija Kaczan, 100, died in hospital after having her neck and cheek broken in a robbery. Arthur Waszkiewicz, 39, has been charged with robbery and manslaughter.
  78. 8 June 2018: Tina Cantello, 49, was reported missing after she failed to turn up for work. She was found dead the next day with multiple stab wounds. Geoffrey Hutton, 38, has been charged with her murder.
  79. 9 June 2018: Marie Gibson, 35, was found dead at home.  The cause of her death was described as “blunt force head, oblique facial injuries”  Her partner Shane Murphy, 27, has been charged with her murder.
  80. 12 June 2018: Tracy Patsalides , 40, was found dead with head and neck injuries in a seafront shelter in Eastbourne. Wayne Marshall, 38, has been charged with her murder.
  81. 23 June 2018: Gita Suri, 56, was stabbed to death. Her partner Gary Davis, 50 has been charged with her murder.
  82. 30 June 2018: Klarissa-Charlene Faith, 26, was found dead by police who had been called to her home. Her partner, Stuart Hall, 47, has been charged with her murder.
  83. 1 July 2018: Shuren Ma, 72, was found with a critical head injury and died at the scene by police who had been called to a disturbance. A man in his 70s was found with stab wounds. The police are not looking for anyone else.
  84. 6 July 2018: Samantha Toms, 47, was found dead at home. Her partner Ralph Fairman, 50, has been charged with her murder.
  85. 7 July 2018: Lorna Myers, 54, was killed by her son, Malo Myers, 32,  who was found guilty of manslaughter. Her 14-year-old son was also badly injured
  86. 8 July 2018: Stela Marisabel Domador-Kuzma, 34, was stabbed to death by Ryan Thornton. Thornton has also admitted to charges of possessing indecent images of children.
  87. 8 July 2018: Patricia Franks, 86, was killed by her husband Lawrence Franks, 84.
  88. 8 July 2018: Dawn Sturgess, 44, was killed after applying the nerve agent novichok which had been discarded in a counterfeit perfume bottle. The UK government believe it was the same military-grade substance used in an attack on a former Russian spy and are said the hold the Russian state responsible.
  89. 10 July 2018: Gina Ingles, 34, and her 4-year-old son, Milo, 4, died of smoke inhalation after a fire in their home. Her partner, 26, remains in hospital. A 23-year-old has been released under investigation pending further enquires.
  90. 10 July 2018: Joyce Burgess, 84, died of a heart attack in hospital 3 days after being assaulted by Johnny Brazil, 27, when her burgled her home. He caused significant injuries to her arms, face and chest and admitted manslaughter in June 2019.
  91. 12 July 2018: Riasat Bi, 86, died of multiple stab wounds. Madni Ahmed, 20, has been charged with her murder.
  92. 12 July 2018: Katerina Makunova, 17, was stabbed to death. Oluwaseyi Dada, 21, has been charged with her murder.
  93. 19 July 2018: Lesley Davies, 81, died in hospital after being attacked in the street. A 69-year-old man has been detained under the mental Health Act and her death is being treated as murder.
  94. 24 July 2018: Sheila Thomas, 69, was found dead with stab wounds at her home in South London. She had been killed  by her husband, David Thomas, 73.
  95. 26 July 2018: Lucy McHugh, 13, was found stabbed to death. Stephen-Alan Nicholson, 24, was bailed and later remanded in custody charged with withholding information.
  96. 29 July 2018: Stephanie (aka Stevie) Packman 64, was killed by her husband Michael Packman, He cut her throat and then tried to kill himself. He was given a 2-year suspended sentence.
  97. July 2018: Anne Reid, 81, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Susan Reid below. Knox is also facing charges in relation to other patients.
  98. July 2018: Susan Reid, 73, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Anne Reid above. Knox is also facing charges in relation to other patients.
  99. 27 July 2018: Sam Eastwood, 28, was found dead in a shallow grave 8 days after being strangled by her partner Michael Stirling, 32.
  100. 2 August 2018: Karen Peter, who was in her 50s, was found dead after a house fire in Dagenham, E. London. Thomas Peter, 50, has been charged with murder and arson with intent to endanger life.
  101. 3 August 2018: Kelly Franklin, 29, was stabbed to death in the street in what police have described as a ‘targeted attack’. Torbjorn (Ian) Kettlewell, 30, has been charged with her murder and possession of a bladed article.
  102. 6 August 2018: Katherine Kemp, 31, was found stabbed to death after her husband Thomas Kemp jumped out of a window.. Her death is being treated as murder, his as suicide.
  103. 6 August 2018: Tracey Evans, 52, was found dead in a flat in Leicestershire. Jeremy Clarke, 54, has been charged with her murder.
  104. 7 August 2018: Marie Walker, 61, was found dead by the police in Edinburgh after neighbours raised concerns. Robert Douglas, 62, has been charged with her murder.
  105. 15 August 2018: Simonne Kerr, 31, died after being stabbed in her home in South London. Her partner, Desmond Sylva, 40, has been charged with her murder.
  106. 15 August 2018: Barbara Davison, 66, was found dead in Redcar. Paul Plunkett, 61, has been charged with her murder.
  107. 21 August 2018: Kaltoun Saleh, 43, died in hospital after sustaining serious burns in a fire at her home in north London on 5 July. 4 children escaped unhurt. Abdi Quule, 42, had previously been charged with attempted murder.
  108. 22 August 2018: Carole Harrison, 73, was found dead after a fire at her house in South West London. Police say she had been attacked before the fire.
  109. 26 August 2018: Sharon Perett, 37, was found dead due to blunt force trauma trauma. Her partner Daniel O’Malley-Keyes, 30, has been charged with murder, it is alleged that Sharon was “beaten to death over the course of a weekend”.
  110. 26/27 August 2018: Raneem Oudeh, 22, was stabbed to death with her mother, Khaola Saleem, 49. Her former partner, Janbaz Tarin, 21, has been charged with their murders.
  111. 26/27 August 2018: Khaola Saleem, 49, was stabbed to death with her daughter, Raneem Oudeh, 22. Raneem’s former partner Janbaz Tarin, 21, has been charged with their murders.
  112. August 2018: Eileen Baxter, 75, died of multiple organ failure following the puncture of her bowl caused by a vaginal mesh implant. The insufficiently tested and poorly regulated plastic mesh devices have been called the greatest health scandal since Thalidomide.
  113. 28 August 2018: Lisa Butler, 48, was stabbed to death by her uncle Richard Butler, 66.
  114. 29 August 2018: Laura Harrison, 36, was beaten, strangled, and stabbed once in the forehead and 17 times in the buttocks by her boyfriend Jonathon Robinson, 32.
  115. 1 September 2018: Celia Levitt, 68, was strangled. Her son, Barry Levitt, 36, has been charged with her murder.
  116. 2 September 2018: Julie Owens, 52, died in hospital 11 days after being seriously assaulted, allegedly by her 30-year-old son John Owens.
  117. 5 September 2018: Joan Hoggett, 62, was stabbed multiple times whilst at work in a local shop. Ethan Mountain, 29, has been charged with her murder.
  118. 6 September 2018: Memunatu Warne, 43, died of smoke inhalation after a masked man riding a moped threw a petrol bomb through a window of the home of a relative she was visiting. 3 men, Kurtis Freeman, 21, Matthew John, 19, and Martin McArdle, 28, have been charged in relation to her death.
  119. 6 September 2018: Kylie Dembrey, 28, died following an attack at her home in which she was stabbed and strangled. Her partner Mark Sinclair, 30, has been charged with her murder.
  120. 9 September 2018: Susan Gyde, 52, was found by police when they were called to attend to a serious assault. She was pronounced dead later in hospital. Her husband Philip Gyde, has been charged with murder.
  121. 11 September 2018: Yvonne Robinson, 60, died at her home in Cumbria. A post mortem revealed that the cause of her death was blunt chest trauma. She had 15 rib fractures and was suffering from neglect. Her partner, Colin Sharples was arrested after her death but died before the post mortem was produced. Assistant coroner Dr Nicholas Shaw said had he not died ‘I have no doubt he would have been arrested and prosecuted in relation to Yvonne’s death and he might well have been charged with her murder.’ There was a history of him abusing her.
  122. 20 September 2018: Kay Martin, 49, was killed at her home in Sunderland by her husband Alan Martin, 53, who then killed himself.
  123. 21 September 2018: Cristina Magda-Calancea, 26, was stabbed to death in Kings Lynn, Norfolk, on 21 September. Gediminas Jasinska, 29, has been charged with her murder.
  124. 21 September 2018: Frances Hubbard, 81, died of multiple stab wounds. Her husband Michael Hubbard, 81has been detained under the Mental Health Act after being questioned by police in relation to her death.
  125. 23 September 2018: Sandra Zmijan, 32, was found bludgeoned to death with head injuries caused by a blunt object. Wojciech Tadewicz, 26, has been charged with her murder.
  126. 25 September 2018: Margaret Harris, 78, and her daughter Sharon Harris, 55, were stabbed to death. Witnesses said they tried to intervene in an argument between a man and a woman. Jack Ralph, 28, has been charged with their murders.
  127. 25 September 2018: Sharon Harris, 55, and her mother Margaret Harris, 78, were stabbed to death. Witnesses said they tried to intervene in an argument between a man and a woman. Jack Ralph, 28, has been charged with their murders.
  128. 26 September 2018: Jeanna Maher, 51, was bound with a ligature at her wrists and ankles and repeatedly hit on the head and a body with an unknown implement. Her husband Peter Maher, 578, has been charged with her murder.
  129. 30 September 2018: Glenda Jackson, 44, was stabbed to death. Two brothers, Nicholas Curtis, 32, and Stuart Curtis, 31, have been charged with her murder.
  130. 1 October 2018: Avan Najmadeen, 32, was found stabbed to death in her home. Dana Abdullah, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  131. 8 October 2018: Natalie Saunders, 33, was found dead. There were 85 separate sites of injury on her body – with a minimum of three blows found to her face, 13 to her head and neck, 23 to her torso, and 25 to her lower limbs. Her boyfriend Stephen Charlton, 24, has was found guilty of her murder.
  132. 9 October 2018: Sarah Wellgreen, 47, was last seen alive. Her former partner, Ben Lacomba, 38, was arrested on October 16 in connection with the investigation but later released. Before being rearrested and charged on 20th Sarah’s body has not yet been found.
  133. 22 October 2018: Nazia Ali, 25, was found dead. Mohammed Anhar, 32, has been charged with her murder.
  134. 24 October 2018: Teresa Garner, 46, died of significant head injuries from severe blunt force trauma with a hammer. Her husband John Garner, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  135. 28 October 2018: Lynn Forde, 35, was found dead after her partner Phil Osborne, 36, called the police and told them that her had killed her.
  136. 29 October 2018: Mavis Bran, 69, died in hospital of multiple organ failure after developing sepsis and hypothermia after suffering severe burns in the chip shop she owned with her husband. Geoff Bran, 70, her husband, was charged with and later cleared of her murder though admitted that he continued to serve customers in the chip shop rather than seek medical assistance. Mavis had previously confided in a friend that her was abusive to her.
  137. 30 October 2018: Sheena Jackson, 58 was found dead with Alexander Jackson, 65. Police have confirmed that they believe her death was murder but that of her husband was not suspicious and they are not looking for anyone else.
  138. 2 November 2018: Anne Marie Pomfret, 49, was found dead having suffered serious head injuries. Her husband David Pomfret, 50, was charged with her murder in April 2019 and found guilty in October 2019. He had battered her to death with a crowbar.
  139. 3 November 2018: Renata Poncova, 33, was pushed out of an 8-th floor window by her boyfriend Tony Taylor, 33.
  140. 6 November 2018: Fiona McDonald, 44, was found dead by police who had been called to attend to ‘a disturbance’. William Finlay, 56, has been charged in relation to her death.
  141. 8 Nov 2018: Natalie Smith, 34, was found with life threatening injuries and died in hospital. She had been stabbed. Her partner Craig Stewart, 36, was also dead. The police said Natalie was assaulted and they are not looking for anyone else in connection to the incident.
  142. 12 November 2018: Tanseen Sheikh, was found dead with multiple injuries at her home. Her husband, Naseer Khan, 66, has been charged with her murder and has been accused of bludgeoning her to death with a vase.
  143. 12 November 2018: Sana Muhammad, 35, was shot in the stomach with a crossbow. She was pronounced dead by doctors who were able to deliver the baby she was carrying. Ramanodge Unmathallegadoo, 50, has been charged with her murder.
  144. 12 November 2018: Katarzyna (Kasia) Paszek, 39, died in hospital after an alleged police attack. Police said a 40-year-old man had been released on conditional bail and their investigation was continuing.
  145. 13 November 2018: Pauline Kilkenny, 59, was found dead at her home after concerns were raised when she didn’t turn up at work. A 28-year-old male has been charged in relation to her death.
  146. 16 November 2018: Maureen Watkins, 75, died from multiple stab wounds. Her son Edward Watkins, has been charged in relation to her death.
  147. 16 November 2018: Valerie Neal, 75, was in hospital in a stoke unit in Blackpool. She died of a haemorrhage caused by a “non-medical related internal injury”, The post-mortem examination was one of a number carried out as part of an investigation into allegations of mistreatment and neglect on the hospital’s stroke unit. Investigating officers had received information about other allegations of serious sexual assaults against two patients, as well as the sexual assault of a healthcare professional working on the stroke unit.  A healthcare professional was arrested in 2021.
  148. 17 November 2018: Jacqueline Allen, 65, died in a house fire, allegedly shortly after warning the police that her daughter’s ex-partner was dangerous. Simon Childs, 51, is charged with her murder and the attempted murder of her 12-year-old granddaughter.
  149. 24 November 2018: Samantha Gosney, 29, was stabbed to death in her home. Adam Brettle, 23, has been charged in relation to her murder.
  150. 25 November 2018: Karen Cleary-Brown,  44 , went missing in Jamaica. She was found dead on 3rd December.  Shelden Hewitt,  32, who was working on her property has been charged with her murder.
  151. 27 November 2018: Lorraine Matos-Sanchez, 27, died of compression to her neck inflicted by her husband Jesus Matos-Sanchez, 31, who then killed himself.
  152. 28 November 2018: Kelly Worgan, 33, was strangled to death by her husband George Worgan, 35.
  153. 29 November 2018: Barbara Findlay, 58 was from Kennington, S. London but had lived in Jamaica for the last 5 years. She was reported missing on 29 November. She was found dead on 5 December.
  154. 1 December 2018: Grace Millane, 22, was from Essex. She went missing on 1st December whilst travelling in New Zealand. She was found dead on 9 December.  A  26 year old male, who has been granted name suppression whilst awaiting trial, has appeared in court  in relation to her death.
  155. 4 December2018: Maureen Whale, 77, collapsed on the phone when calling the police while her house was being burgled by two males. Post-mortem tests found she died from coronary heart disease brought on by the stress of the incident.
  156. 5 December 2018: Sally Cavender, 55, was taken to hospital critically injured but died shortly after. Robert Simpson-Scott, 43. Has been charged with her murder.
  157. 10 December 2018: June Knight, 79, died after falling from a balcony. Robert Knight, 52, has been charged in relation to her death. It was reported that a court heard “A devoted son killed his mother by lifting her over a balcony at a care home.”
  158. 13 December 2018: An as-yet-unnamed 30-year-old woman was found dead. Anthony Davis, 39, has been charged with her murder.
  159. 14 December 2018: Poppy Devey-Waterhouse, was declared dead by police and paramedics called to attend. Joe Atkinson, 25, has been charged with her murder. The preliminary cause of her death has been recorded as head and neck trauma.
  160. 17 December 2018: Sheila Small, 73, was beaten to death with a rolling pin and walking stick by her husband Edward Small, 76. Prosecutor David Brooke QC said she had wounds to the top of her head that had split the skin to the skull. She had up to 26 separate injuries to her face, extensive bruising to her body and all four limbs, a shattered shoulder blade, a broken collar bone and fractured ribs. Her right arm was “absolutely covered in bruises” and the index finger was broken.
  161. 19 December 2018: Lana Owen, 46, was found dead. Philip Andrews, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  162. 22 December 2018: Marissa Aldrich, 29, was found dead. Robert McWhir, 25, has been charged with her murder. A post mortem recorded that she had drowned.
  163. 22 December 2018: Joanne Gallagher 33, was stabbed 57 times by James Kennedy, 31.
  164. 23 December 2018: Carole Forth, 56, was found dead.  Her partner Edward Scott, 62, has been charged in relation to her death.
  165. 25 December 2018: Parwin Qureshi, 19, was found with serious injuries caused by multiple stab wounds. She was declared dead at the scene. Her husband Mohammad Qureshi, 27, has been charged with her murder.
  166. 26 December 2018: Angela Mittal, 41 was stabbed 59 times by her husband, Laurens Brand, 47, shortly after speaking to a solicitor about divorce.
  167. 26 December 2018: Alena Grlakova, 38, was found dead, naked in stream, in Rotherham, in April 2019 after having last been seen alive on boxing day 2018. She had been strangled And her body was covered In grit and stone. Gary Allen, 47, was found guilty of her murder.
  168. 26 December 2018: Joy Morgan, 21 was last seen alive at a church celebration in London. Ajibola Shogbamimu, 40, has been charged with her murder. Joy’s body has not been found.
  169. 30 December 2018: June Jones, 33, was found dead after being reported missing on 26 December, Police have said they believe she had been dead for some time. Her ex-boyfriend, Michael Foran, 32.
  170. 30 December 2018: Linda Jane McArity, 50, was found strangled. Ian Kerr, 36, was found guilty of her murder.

Last updated 13 November 2021.


138 women


2017: At least 151 UK women killed by men, or where a man is the principal suspect.150 women in 365 days is one woman dead every 2.4 days.

  1. 7 January 2017: Nicola Beck, 52, was found dead along with her husband Michael Beck, 62. Police have described their deaths as ‘domestic related murder and suicide.’
  2. 8 January 2017: Kerri McCauley, 32, was found dead. A post-mortem was inconclusive but Norfolk Police said there was evidence that Kerri was subjected to a severe blunt force assault. Her former partner, Joe Storey, 26, has been charged with her murder.
  3. 10 January 2017: Eulin Hastings, 74, was killed in a house fire. A 26-year-old man was arrested and bailed.
  4. 11 January 2017: Victoria Shorrock, 45, was found dead having suffered ‘a number of injuries’. Lee Grime, 35, had been charged with her murder but the charge was changed to assault when the cause of death could not be verified. Det Insp Tim McDermott said: “Even though we can’t be sure exactly what happened in the hours before she died, what is clear is Grime assaulted her, with her death following at some point afterwards. Victoria was a vulnerable woman who Grime took advantage of. He showed himself to be a dangerous and manipulative individual.” Grimes was jailed for 16 months.
  5. 11 Jan 2017: Kirby Norden (also known as Kirsty), 32, was last seen alive. Her body was found in may in the home she shared with her boyfriend Dean Lowe, 33. Ahe has been charged with her murder.
  6. 16 January 2017: Leone Weeks, 16, was found stabbed to death on a footbath close to her home. 18-year-old Shea Heeley, has been charged with her murder.
  7. 16 January 2017: Kiran Daudia, 46, ‘s remains were found in a suitcase by a member of the public. Her 50-year-old ex-husband, Ashwin Daudia, has been charged with her murder.
  8. 18 January 2017: Kulwinder Kaur, 40, was killed by a stab wound to her neck. Her husband, Azad Singh, 46, has been charged with her murder.
  9. 19 January 2017: Anne Forneaux, 70, was found dead at home and is believed to have been killed by her husband, Edward Forneaux, 74, who is thought to have killed himself by driving in to a tree.
  10. 20 January 2017: Anita Downey, 51, is thought to have been stabbed to death. David Lymess, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  11. 28 January 2017: Chrissy Kendall, 46, was found dead with multipole stab wounds. Her husband James Neary, 46, has been charged with her murder.
  12. 30 January 2017: Gillian Zvomuya, 42, also known as Nyasha Kahari, dies from head injuries and also suffered injuries from a ‘bladed item’. Her husband Norbery Chikerema, 42, has been charged with her murder.
  13. 3 February 2017: Amandeep Kaur, 35, was found dead with significant injuries. Baldeep Singh, 38, has been charged with her murder.
  14. 6 February 2017: Tina Billingham, 54, was taken to a doctor’s surgery with stab wounds but later died in hospital. Her partner Ronald Cook, 54, has been charged with her murder.
  15. 11 February 2017: Hannah Dorans, 21, was found dead. Frazer Neil, 23, has been charged in relation to her death.
  16. 11 February 2017: Catherine Kelly, 71, was killed in a fire which was thought to have been started deliberately.
  17. 11 February 2017: Hang Yin Leung, 64, was killed when a group of men posing as cold callers entered and robbed her home.
  18. 13 February 2017: Karina Batista, 40, was found dead with multiple injuries to her upper body. Jaici Rocha, 36, has been charged with her murder.
  19. 15 February 2017: Humara Khan, 42, was found to have a serious head injury when police were called to her home. She later died in hospital. Her husband Jamal Khan, 52, has been charged with her murder.
  20. 19 February 2017: Hazel Wilson Briant, 27, was stabbed to death by her partner Olumide Orimoloye, 42, who also killed himself.
  21. 19 February 2017: Margaret Stenning, 79, was stabbed to death. Her husband, Ronald Stenning, who claimed she slit her own throat, has been charged with her murder.
  22. 22 February 2017: Avis Addison, 88, was found dead at home after police were called to the property. Her husband Douglas Addison, 88, has been charged with her murder.
  23. 25 February 2017: Beverly Hudson, 42, died in hospital 2 days after having been stabbed 20 times in the neck, chest and abdomen as well as her arms, hands and back by her partner Mark Minott, 41, who used a second knife after the first one broke.
  24. 26 February 2016: Julie McCash, 43, was stabbed to death at a vigil being held for her missing nephew. Robert Stratton, 42, has been charged with her murder.
  25. 26 February 2017: Sarah Pitkin, 58, is believed to have been stabbed to death by her husband Richard Pitkin, , 65, who then hanged himself.
  26. 28 February 2017: Lea Adri-Soejoko, 80, was found dead in an allotment lock-up store. She had been strangled. Rahim Mohammadi, 40, has been charged with her murder.
  27. In February 2015, Justene Reece, 46, killed herself by hanging following a period of sustained stalking and coercive control. In a landmark legal case, Nicolas Allen, who had formerly been Justene’s partner, admitted manslaughter.
  28. 8 March 2017: Anne-Marie James, 33, was stabbed to death by her brother Melvin James,36, who then killed himself. He also badly injured their mother.
  29. 13 March 2017: Sabrina Mullings, 38, was stabbed to death. Her partner Ivan Griffin, 23, has been charged with her murder.
  30. 17 March 2017: Sheila Morgan, 72, died of necrotising fasciitis from an infected stab wound after her and her husband were attacked by Keiran Wathan, 24, who had broken in to their home.
  31. 22 March 2017: Aysha Frade, 43, was killed when Adrian Ajao/Elms, also known as Khalid Massod, drove a car in to pedestrians in a terrorist attack in London.
  32. 25 March 2017: Tracey Wilkinson, 50, and her son Pierce, 13, were stabbed to death by Aaron Bailey who was known to the family. Her husband was also badly hurt in the attack.
  33. 25 March 2017: Kanwal/Bernice Williams was last seen alive. Her body was found on 9th of April, two days after the discovery of the body of her husband Lawrence Williams, 50. He is thought to have killed himself.
  34. 1 April 2017: Elaine Blane, 87, died after being attacked by a man she believed was a window cleaner 20 3rd He struck her on the head multiple times, leaving her with severe bruising, 2 broken ribs and a broken vertebrae. She spent 8 weeks in hospital and died at home of a blood clot to the lung, caused by the attack, on the day she went home. She described her male attacker. Her has not been found.
  35. 4 April 2017: Ana Maria Pereira De Sousa Rebelo, 51, was found dead, it is thought through compression to her neck. 7 months later her husband Alfredo Da Costa Rebelo was charged with her murder.
  36. 6 April 2017: Andreea Christea, 31, died after falling in to the river Thames when Adrian Ajao/Elms, also known as Khalid Massod, drove a car in to pedestrians in a terrorist attack in London on 22 March.
  37. 9 April 2017: Vicki Hull, 31, was found strangled. Mark Mahoney, 31, has been charged with her murder.
  38. 14 April 2017: Hannah Bladon, 20, a student from Derby , was stabbed to death in Jerusalem by Jamil Tamimi, 57.
  39. 17 April 2017: Carolyn Hill, 51, died of a head injury. Skye Page, 37, has been charged with her murder.
  40. 19 April 2017: Karina Evemy, 19, died in hospital of injuries sustained on 13th Her boyfriend Dylan Harries, 21, had previously been charged with attempted murder.
  41. Between 16 April and May 2017: Megan Bills, 17, was killed. She was found decomposing and wrapped in cling film in May. Ashley Foster, 24, was initially charged with preventing a proper burial and later charged with her murder.
  42. 4 May 2017: Karolina Chwiluk, 20, died after being stabbed in an incident in which two other people were injured. Grzesiek Kosiec, 23, said to have been her boyfriend, has been chared with her murder and two counts of GBH.
  43. 7 May 2017: Jane Sherratt, 60, died in hospital 17 weeks after being battered over the dead with a dumbbell as she slept by her husband Paul Sherratt, 57.
  44. 7 May 20107: Tracy Kearns, 43, was strangled and smothered in a sustained and prolonged attack in which she suffered 40 separate injuries by her partner Anthony Bird. After he had killed her, her cut her clothes off, wrapped her naked body in plastic and stuck her in a tree/wendy house, which he had previously made for the children.
  45. 14 May 2017: Megan Bannister, 16, was found dead in a car after a collision. She did not have injuries consistent with a crash. A pathologist has informed the court that she either died of strangulation or an MDMA overdose or a mixture of both. Megan’s blood had 10 times the MDMA of Jason Burder, 28 and Adam King, 28 who were also in the car. Postmortem tests showed Burder’s semen inside and on Megan, as well as under Adam King’s fingernails. Burder and King had been calling ‘escorts’ as they drove around with Megan dead or dying in the car. Burder’s former partner told the court that he was violent and aggressive when he used drugs and put his hands round her neck during sex. Both were found not guilty of the manslaughter of Megan.
  46. 14 May 2017: Sinead Wooding, 26, was stabbed and bludgeoned with a claw hammer before her burnt body was found in woodland. Her husband Akshar Ali, 27, and his friend Yasmin Ahmed, 27, are currently on trial in relation to her death. (Nov 2017)
  47. 15 May 2017: Concepta Leonard, 51, was stabbed to death by her ex-partner Peadar Phair, who and killed himself and tried to kill her son.

On the evening of 22 May, 17 women and girls and 5 men were killed in an attack in        Manchester.  They were

  1. Angelica Klis, 40
  2. Georgina Callendar, 18
  3. Kelly Brewster, 32
  4. Olivia Campbell, 10
  5. Alison Howe, 45
  6. Lisa Lees, 47
  7. Jane Tweddle-Taylor, 51
  8. Megan Hurley, 15
  9. Nell Jones, 14
  10. Michelle Kiss, 45
  11. Sorrell Leczkowski, 14
  12. Chloe Rutherford, 17
  13. Eilidh Macleod, 14
  14. Wendy Fawell, 50
  15. Courtney Boyle, 19
  16. Elaine McIver, 43

Saffie Roussos, 8*

  1. 23 May 2017: Gemma Leeming, 30, was found strangled. Craig O’Sullivan, 39, has been charged with her murder.
  2. 25 May 2017: Emma Day, 33, was stabbed to death. Her ex-partner, Mark Morris, 39, has been charged with her murder.
  3. 26 May 2017: Mohanna Abdhua, 20, also known as Montana, was shot dead in what appears to have been crossfire of a ‘gangland shooting’. Two men have been arrested and bailed.
  4. 27 May 2017: Marjorie Cawdrey and her husband Michael, both 83, were stabbed to death. A 40-year-ond man has been charged in relation to their murders.
  5. 28 May 2017: Sobhia Khan, 37 was found dead. Her husband Ataul Mustafa, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  6. 29 May 2017: Romina Kalachi, 32, was found stabbed to death in London.
  7. 30 May 2017: Arena Saeed, 30 and her two children Shadia, 6 and Rami, 4 were killed in Liverpool. Her husband (their father) Sami Salem, 30, has been charged in relation to their deaths.
  8. 2 June 2017: Alyson Watt, 52, was stabbed to death and her 16-year-old son was also attacked. Her former partner Gary Brown, 54, has been charged.

3 June 2017: 8 people were killed in a terror attack in London by Khuram Shazad Butt, 27; Rachid Redouane, 30; Youssef Zaghba, 22. They included

  1. Christine Archibald, 30
  2. Kirsty Boden, 28
  3. Sara Zelenak, 21
  1. 8 June 2017: Sarah Jeffrey, 48, was strangled. Her husband Christopher Jeffrey, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  2. 9 June 2017: Karen Young, 47, was found dead in Allan Doherty’s flat. He has been charged with culpable homicide.
  3. 13 June 2017: Jean Chapman, 81, was killed by blunt force trauma to the head. Her 71-year-old husband John Chapman, has been charged with murder.
  4. 12 June 2017: Janice Griffiths, 59, died in hospital 2 days after being subjected to a violent attack. A 22-year-old man has been held under the Mental Health Act in relation to her death.
  5. 14 June 2017: Joanne Rand, 47, dies after sustaining chemical burns on 3 June from a substance in a bottle that was kicked during ‘an altercation’. Xeneral Webster has been charged with attempted GBH.
  6. 17 June 2017: Dionne Clark, 27, was found dead. Dominic Wallis, 28, and Elizabeth Ellis, 19, have been charged in relation to her murder.
  7. 18 June 2017: Ellen Higginbottom, 18, was killed through multiple wounds to her neck. Mark Steven Buckley, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  8. 27 June 2017: Julie Parkin, 39, was stabbed to death. Adam Parkin, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  9. 29 June 2017: Molly McLaren, 23, was killed by her throat being slit. Her ex-boyfriend, Joshua Stimpson, 25, has been charged with her murder.
  10. 3 July 2017: Jane Mathew, 62, was bludgeoned to death with a hammer by her husband Francis Mathew, 61. The couple were from the UK and lived in Dubai.
  11. 6 July 2017: Ilona Czuper, 63, was stabbed and slashed in the throat more than 60 times and beaten over the head by what what was thought most likely to be a paving slab by her grandson Kordian Filmanowicz, 23. He also smashed the skulls of her pet cat and dog.
  12. 9 July 2017: Vera Savage, 89, was stabbed to death. Police believe her son John Savage, 54, killed her and then himself.
  13. 10 July 2019: Janice Farman, 47, from Clydebank, had lived and worked in Mauritius since 2004. She died of asphyxiation after being attacked by masked robbers Kamlesh Mansing, 27, and Anish Soneea, 20, on 6 July 2017. They were jailed for 33 and 23 years respectively.  A third suspect, Ravish Rao Fakhoo, is claiming a reduction in his charge and will face a separate trial.
  14. 19 July 2017: Celine Dookhran, 19, was kidnapped, raped, had her throat cut and her body was placed in a freezer. Majahid Arshid, 33, has been charged.
  15. 20 July 2017: Vanessa James, 24 was stabbed in the neck and abdomen. Tre Cameron, 21, has been charged with her murder.
  16. 21 July 2017: Florina Pastina, 36, was suffered head injuries as a result of being bludgeoned in the head with a hammer. Lucian Stinci, 34, has been charged with her murder.
  17. 21 July 2017: Olivia Kray, 19, was strangled. Her father, Richard Kray. 63 has been charged with her murder and the attempted murder of another woman.
  18. 25 July 2017: Natividad Nituan, 70, was stabbed and strangled by her partner Raymond Page, 64, in July 2017. She had knife wounds on her hands where she had tried to defend herself and blunt force injuries to her head and face.
  19. 29 July 2017: Farnaz Ali, 49, was killed in what has been described as a ‘sustained assault’ . Danny Williams, 26, has been charged with her murder.
  20. 31 July 2017: Elizabeth (Betty) Jordan, 53, was found seriously injured and died later in hospital. Her husband, Paul Jordan, 54, has been charged with her murder.
  21. 3 August 2017: Leanne Collopy, 25, was found in a burning house with her 2-year-old daughter. She died of stab wounds and burns. Saleem Said, 39, has been charged with her murder, the attempted murder of the two year old girl and arson with intent to endanger life
  22. 5 August 2017: Rikki Lander, 26, was found dead at home. Her husband Paul Lander was found hanged. Police said that ‘It’s clear a sustained attack had taken place towards Rikki.’
  23. 6 August 2017: Alex Stuart, 22, was found with facial injuries and had been stabbed. She died in hospital. Nicholas Rogers, 26, has been charged with her murder.
  24. 11 August 2017: Leah Cohen, 66, and her daughter Hannah Cohen, 33, were stabbed to death. Joshua Cohen, 27, Leah’s son and Hannah’s brother, has been charged with their murders.
  25. 11 August 2017: Hannah Cohen, 33, and her mother, Leah Cohen, 66, were stabbed to death. Joshua Cohen, 27, Hannah’s brother and Leah’s son, has been charged with their murders.
  26. 12 August 2017: Beryl Hammond, 81, was found dead at home. Her son, Darren Hammond, 41, has been charged with her murder.
  27. 14 August 2017: Quyen Ngoc Nguyen, 29, was found dead inside a burning car. William McFall, 50, and Stephen Unwin, 39, have been charged with her murder.
  28. 14 August 2017: Karen Jacquet, 59, was found dead by police called to an incident. Yousef Mohammed, 65, has been charged with murder.
  29. 22 August 2017: Asiyah Harris, 27, was stabbed to death by her husband Adan Dahir, 38, after telling him that she was leaving him.
  30. 26 August 2017: Kellie Sutton, 30, died in hospital 3 days after attempting to kill herself. Her partner Stephen Gane, 31, was found guilty of coercive control in a landmark case in which the judge told him “ Your behaviour drove Kellie Sutton to hang herself that morning. ‘You beat her and ground her down and broke her spirits.”
  31. 27 August 2017: Jessica King, 23, was found dead. Jordan Thackray, 27, has been charged with her murder.
  32. 9 September 2017: Tyler Denton, 25, was found dead. Redvers Bickley, 21, was charged with her murder and the attempted murder of her father and two sisters
  33. September 2017: Emma Kelty, 43, was shot, raped, tortured and had her throat slit before her body was dumped in fast flowing water. She was kayaking down the Amazon river and killed in Brazil by drug traffickers.
  34. 24 September 2017: Jane Hings, 72, was found dead at home. Craig Keogh, 25, has been charged with her murder, rape and burglary.
  35. 25 September 2017: Linda Parker, 51, was found dead at home after police received a call expressing concern at her welfare. Glen Gibbons. 51, has been charged with her murder.
  36. 25 September 2017: Amy Barnes, 32, was stabbed in the neck as she slept in bed by her husband 30-year-old James Barnes. He then killed himself.
  37. 27 September 2017: Nasima Noorzia, 29, was found dead in woodland by a roadside after a search following a call about concerns for her safety. Her husband, Habib Rahman, 42, has been charged with her murder.
  38. 28 September 2017: Katherine Smith, 26, was found dead. Anthony Lowe, 46, has been charged with her murder.
  39. 29 September 2017: Leanne McKie, 39, was found dead in a lake. Her husband Darren, McKie, 43, has been charged with her murder.
  40. 4 October 2017: Jane Sergeant, 67, was collected from a care-home by her husband Richard Sergeant, he took her to their home and smothered her and then hanged himself.
  41. 15 October 2017: Shaeen Akthar, 46, was killed. Her husband Parvez Akhtar, 46, has been charged with her murder.
  42. 20 October 2017: Teresa Wishart, 80, was found dead as a result of blunt force trauma to the head. Charles Stapleton, 51 has been charged with her murder. He was also charged with burglary.
  43. 21 October 2017: Moira Gilbertson, 57, was found dead. It is believed she had been dead for some time. Roger Crossan, 52, has been charged with her murder.
  44. 21 October 2017: Anne O’Neill, 51, was found fatally injured in the garden of her elderly parents. Her son, Declan O’Neill, 27, has been charged with her murder.
  45. 22 October 2017: Elizabeth Merriman, 39, was killed by stab wounds to the torso and abdomen. Her husband Darren Merriman has been charged with her murder.
  46. 22October 2017: Janet Northmore, 76, was found dead. Shaun McDonald, 54, was charged with her murder.
  47. 26 October 2017: Jillian Howell, 46, was stabbed to death. Her colleague David Browning, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  48. 29 October 2017: Mary Steel, 79, was stabbed to death. Her son, Nicholas Steel, 57, has been charged with her murder.
  49. 4 November 2017: Chloe Miazek, 20, was found dead. Mark Bruce, 32, has been charged in relation to her death.
  50. 5 November 2017: Simone Grainger, 30, was found dying of head Her husband Steven Grainger, 32, has been charged with her murder.
  51. 12 November 2017: Michele Anison, 56, was volunteering in Belize when she was stabbed to death.
  52. 15 November 2017: Patricia McIntosh, 56, died of head injuries. Her husband Andrew McIntosh, 54, has been charged with her murder.
  53. 16 November 2017: Catherine Burke, 55, was stabbed to death in her own home in a sexually motivated assault by Kasim Lewis, 30, who, 6 weeks later murdered  Iuliana Tudos.
  54. 21/22 November 2017: Valerie Turner, 62, died in hospital after a cardiac arrest which followed her being assaulted by her son Jason Turner, 37. He has admitted to killing her.
  55. 23 November 2017: Lisa-Marie Thornton, 36, was stabbed 3 times by her former partner Owen Pellow, 43.
  56. 25 November 2017: Tracey Bowen, 52, was stabbed in the neck by Steven Jones, 36.
  57. 27 November 2017: Lisa Chadderton, 44, died of stab wounds and strangulation. Mark Tindill, 56, has been charged with her murder.
  58. 29 November 2017: Monika Lasek, 36, was stabbed to death. Her husband Zbigniew Lasek, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  59. 29 November 2017: Ruby Wilson, 94, was stabbed in the throat. Her grandson, Anthony Jennings, 32, has been charged with her murder.
  60. Patricia Henry, 46, went missing in November 2017. In October 2021, George Metcalff, 71, was found guilty of raping and murdering her. Patricia’s body has not been found.
  61. 1 December 2017: Susan Westwood, 68, was found with multiple stab wounds. Thomas Westwood, 46, has been charged in relation to her death.
  62. 4 December 2017: Marie Brown, 41, was strangled at the home of her father, who had also been murdered. Their killer(s) has/have not yet been found.
  63. 7 December 2017: Ella Parker, 29, died of puncture wounds to the neck. Ryan Blacknell, 24, described in the press as ‘a friend’, has been charged in relation to her death.
  64. 11 December 2017: Demi Pearson, 15, died in a house fire along with three siblings in an arson attack committed by Zak Bolland, 23 and David Worrall, 25, who had been involved in a feud with her older brother.
  65. 12 December 2017: Janine Bowater, 25, was strangled to death. Her partner John Wright, 32, was charged with her murder.
  66. 16 December 2017: Suzanne Brown, 33, was stabbed 173 times. Jake Neate, 36, has been charged with her murder.
  67. 16 December 2017: Rebecca Dykes, 30, was sexually assaulted and strangled before being dumped at a roadside. Tarek Hawchieh, 36, has admitted to her murder.
  68. 21 December 2017: Jodie Willsher, 30, was stabbed to death at work. Neville Hord, 44, said to be the former partner of her mother, has been charged with her murder.
  69. 22 December 2017: Beverley Bliss, 52, was found dead and her partner seriously injured. Her son James Standing, 35, has been charged with murder and attempted murder.
  70. 23 December 2017: Nicole Campbell, 30, was found dead with 30 stab wounds. It is believed that she was killed by John Morris, who also killed himself.
  71. 24 December 2017: Iuliana Tudos, 22, went missing as she was on the way to meet friends. She was found dead with a head injury and stab wounds in a disused park building. Kasim Lewis, 31, has been charged with her murder.
  72. 25 December 2017: Jayne Reat, 43, was stabbed to death as she tried to protect her daughter. Nathan Ward, the son of her partner, has been charged with murder and attempted murder.
  73. 25 December 2017: Jillian Grant, 43, was found dead in a house where there had been a fire. Mark Smith, 41, has been charged with her murder and attempted murder.
  74. 26 December 2017: Pauline Cockburn, 48, was found dead with her partner Kevin Armstrong, 53. Police believe he killed her before killing himself.
  75. 27 December 2017: Julie Fox, 51, was found dead in her home after a neighbour reported a smell of gas. Adrian Jenkins, 43, has been charged with her murder.
  76. 30 December 2017: Anne Searle, 62, was found dead. Her husband Stephen Searle, 64, has been charged with her murder.
  77. 31 December 2017: Melanie Clark, 44, was stabbed to death. Her husband David Clark, 49, has been charged with her murder.

Awaiting charging/conviction information regarding the death of Rosemarie Stokes.   

Please let me know if you have information regarding the deaths of any other women/girls (aged 13 and over)  where a man/men is/are the primary suspects in the UK or UK women killed abroad in 2017.

*Counting  Dead Women is a record of women and girls aged 13 and over. Saffie Roussos is commemorated here but not included in the count.

Stacey Hyde: A frightened 17-year-old

Stacey Hyde

In April this year, John Butler, 62, went to the flat of his former partner, Pauline Butler, 61, and stabbed her.  In his trial, Butler told the court that he couldn’t remember how the knife had ended up in his hand and that he had fallen after she had pushed him, causing him to accidentally injure her. The court heard that Pauline Butler had previously threatened him with a knife.  Of course, being dead, she wasn’t able to challenge his version of events.   Pauline had been found with a number of knife wounds to her neck, chest and back.  As judge, Mr Justice Edis pointed out, had Butler not wanted Pauline to die, he would have called an ambulance, rather than remove and wash the knife, take her dog to his home, drink a beer and smoke a cigar. Butler was found guilty of manslaughter, not murder, due to loss of control, and sentenced to jail for seven years in jail.

Sybil Sibthorpe was 80 years-old in May, 2012, when she was found in her garden with “significant” head injuries after being beaten by her former tenant Lee Grainger, 41.  Grainger pleaded guilty to manslaughter on the grounds of diminished responsibility and was sentenced to 12 and-a-half years. According to the judge, Grainger was “a significant danger to the public”.

Adrian Muir, 51, killed Pamela Jackson, 55, by beating or kicking her head with such force that she suffered fractures to her skull and bleeding to her brain. He then drove over 120 miles before digging a grave in moorland and burying her with a bunch of flowers in a Tesco carrier bag. Muir initially denied murder and claimed he had been framed.  He posted fake entries from her Facebook page suggesting she was still alive. It took police more than two months before they found Pamela’s body in May 2013.  Muir’s fingerprint was found on the carrier bag inside her grave, and a CCTV camera caught him cleaning the back of his car in a supermarket car park.  He later claimed that she had attacked him, “like a bloody devil”.  Muir was jailed for 18 years, not for murder, but manslaughter.

Felipe Lopes, 26, had a six-year police history of violent assaults on women before being jailed for 12 weeks in 2012 after tracking down and assaulting an ex-girlfriend whom he had previously stabbed. Within two weeks of his release, in January 2013, he had beaten 23-year-old Anastasia Voykina to death with a hockey stick. Before he killed her, neighbours had called the police to her flat on two occasions, because, they said, his attacks on her were so severe, the building was vibrating. Judge Richard Marks said to Lopes: “There is no doubt in my mind you intended to kill her. You are and will remain for an indefinite time a significantly dangerous man, particularly to women.” Lopes pleaded guilty to manslaughter, not murder, on the grounds of diminished responsibility because of his mental health problems.  He was jailed for a minimum term of seven years and three months.

Like Filipe Lopes, Vincent Francis had a history of violence against women.  In court it was alleged that he had assaulted his girlfriend, Holly Banwell, at least 27 times. Some of the assaults had been overhead by neighbours; it was also alleged that he had attacked a previous partner.  On 4 September, 2009, Holly  had been out with her 17-year-old friend Stacey Hyde, they  had then gone back to the flat that Holly and Vince Francis shared.  Stacey remembers waking up to hear Holly screaming but not what happened next.  A 72-year-old neighbour told police that she saw Francis trying to swing Stacey  around by her pony tail while her friend Holly looked on, screaming.  Holly Banwell called the police, telling them “…my boyfriend is beating my friend… I need the police ASAP”.  On the recorded call she is then heard saying “they are fighting”, before screaming “Stacey has a knife and has stabbed him”.  Stacey was sobbing when the police arrived, she told them “he tried to kill me…I had to help Holly…he was going to kill her…I thought he would kill me…”.

In March 2010, at the age of 18, Stacey Hyde was convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.  While awaiting trial she had been given well-intentioned but misguided advice from other prisoners affecting her responses in court and possibly, consequently, how she was viewed by the jury. The law has been changed since then too, so that loss of control caused by fear of serious violence can now be taken into account, but this wasn’t an option at the time Stacey was convicted.

Stacey is due in court to appeal her conviction on Thursday and Friday this week, the 13th and 14th November, 2014.  Since her conviction, new evidence has emerged about her mental health, for example that she had ADHD at the time of her offence, and in addition, other psychiatric diagnoses resulting from a difficult childhood.  If Stacey’s appeal is accepted, her conviction for murder will be overturned for one of manslaughter.  She has already served five years and it is possible that she will be released from custody.

Trials for murder and manslaughter are complex. Each with their own particular circumstances and it is right that those circumstances are taken into account.  I’m sure there are many reasons why Stacey’s case can’t be directly compared to those of the men I’ve mentioned above, and yet: Unlike 62-year-old John Butler who claimed he’d been attacked by Pauline Butler before he stabbed her, or 51-year-old Adrian Muir, who claimed Pamela Jackson attacked him before he beat her head and fractured her skull, a 72-year-old neighbour had witnessed Francis attacking Stacey, and Holly Banwell called the police telling them that he was beating her.  Also, unlike Muir, she didn’t lie her way through a two-month police investigation.  Like 41-year-old Lee Granger, who killed 80-year-old Sybil Sibthorpe, at 17, she was half the age of the man she killed.  But a 17-year-old young woman – in fear of her life and that of her friend –  killing a 34 year-old-man, cannot really be compared to a 41-year-old man,  described by a judge as a risk to the public,  bearing a grudge against and beating to death his 80-year-old former landlord.

Stacey was 17, legally a child, a child with a history of mental health problems and experience of sexual violence, when she killed 34-year-old Vincent Francis, a man with a history of perpetrating violence. Her claims of being assaulted by the man she killed are not unverified. She is not a risk to the public. She did not lie and deny her actions though the investigation.  She did not try to hide a body. Unlike John Butler, Lee Grainger, Adrian Muir, Filipe Lopes and many men who have killed women since she killed Vincent Francis, Stacey Hyde was found guilty of murder, not manslaughter. Stacey has never denied that she killed Vincent Francis, but she wasn’t a murderer, she was a child, a frightened child.

 Please support Justice for Women in their fight for justice for Stacey Hyde.

Why the hierarchy of dead women and girls?

Like anyone else, I was saddened to wake up to the news that a body has been found in the search for 14-year-old Alice Gross, and that her disappearance has now become a murder inquiry; similarly, I felt sickened to hear about the rape and  murder of 23-year old Hannah Witheridge, just two weeks ago.

But since Alice went missing – and in addition to Hannah – at least ten other UK women have been killed through suspected male violence.  Why don’t we all know the name of Leighann Duffy, 26, stabbed to death in Walthamstow? What about Glynis Bensley, 48, who witnesses said was pursued by two masked men on bikes before she was killed? Perhaps some people will recall the name of Pennie Davis, 47, found dead in a field, stabbed as she tended her horse.  What about Serena Hickey, Dorothy Brown, 66; Nicola Mckenzie, 37; Davinia Loynton, 59; or Lorna McCarthy, 50?

The murder of 82-year-old Palmira Silva who was beheaded in London was also front page news this month, but few were aware that she was the third woman to have been beheaded in London in less than six months, after  Tahira Ahmed, 38, in June and  Judith Nibbs, 60, in April. Was this simply because beheading is big news at the moment due to the murders of David Haines,  James Foley and Steven Sotloff?

The killer of 15-year-old Shereka Marsh, shot in Hackney earlier this year, was found guilty of manslaughter this week.  Did we all mourn the 15-year-old school-girl, described by teachers as one of their “shining stars”, on course to sit 10 GCSEs this summer?  Wasn’t being accidentally shot by your boyfriend also big news, also international news, this month?

Men’s violence against women and girls, systemic, connected, has killed at least 11 dead UK women this month.  At least 111 UK women have been killed through suspected male violence so far this year, 111 women in 272 days is one dead woman every 2.45 days.

Older, black, usually but not all, killed by men they had known and loved – their husbands, boyfriends, ex’s and sons (8 women have been killed by their sons this year, 13 last year, 16 the year before) – why don’t we care so much about these women? Young, white and blond, killed by a stranger, hold the front pages – but don’t bother to make the connections with other women killed by men; talk about anything, immigration, terrorism, tourism, guns and gangs – talk about anything except male violence against women and girls.

Innocent Victims? Isn’t that just another way of blaming women and girls for men’s violence?

The phrase “innocent victim” has re-emerged to describe Sabrina Moss – a 24-year old teacher who was shot dead in London as she celebrated her birthday in August 2013 – in British bastions of judgemental conservative journalism The Daily Mail and the Express.

It’s a phrase that came in to my consciousness when it was used to describe 16-year-old Jane MacDonald who was murdered on 26 June 1977 by being hit on the head with a hammer three times and stabbed in the chest and back around 20 times. When her face-down body was turned over by police, they found a broken bottle complete with screw-top embedded in her chest.  She was murdered by Peter Sutcliffe and was the fifth woman of thirteen that he is known to have killed.  Before her, there had been 28-year-old Wilma McCann, beaten with a hammer and stabbed to death in October 1975; 42-year-old Emily Jackson, beaten with a hammer and stabbed 52 times with a screw-driver in January 1975; Irene Richardson, 28, beaten with a hammer and stabbed and slashed with a Stanley knife in February 1977 and Patricia Atkinson, 32, beaten and clawed with a hammer and also stabbed, in April 1977.  Wilma McCann, Emily Jackson, Irene Richardson and Patricia Atkinson had not been described by the press as innocent victims.  Why? Because Jane MacDonald was the first woman known to have been murdered by Sutcliffe who was not in prostitution.  Sutcliffe himself shared this belief that prostituted women were less worthy than none prostituted women.  In his confession, referring to Jane MacDonald, he said

“The next one I did I still feel terrible about, it was the young girl Jayne MacDonald. I read recently about her father dying of a broken heart and it brought it all back to me. I realised what sort of a monster I had become. I believed at the time I did it that she was a prostitute.”


“When I saw in the papers that MacDonald was so young and not a prostitute, I felt like someone inhuman and I realised that it was a devil driving me against my will and that I was a beast.”

Leaving aside Sutcliffe’s failure to take responsibility for his actions –  blaming them on being driven by the devil, not his own violent misogyny –  the implication is clear, that beating and stabbing four prostituted women to death was something less than monstrous. He became a monster when he killed Jane, not when he had killed Wilma, Emily, Irene and Patricia.

This week, Oscar Pistorius was found not guilty of the murder of Reeva Steenkamp, the woman he killed.  State prosecutor Gerrie Nel refered to Pistorius as causing “the death of an innocent woman” and again referred to him being “convicted of a serious crime of killing an innocent woman.”  Of course, Reeva Steenkamp, in comparison to Pistorius was innocent, but surely that is almost always the case when comparing murder victims to their killers.    If not innocent, what are they? Guilty? Or perhaps somehow complicit in their own death?

Despite attempts at law reform, some women’s complicity in their own murders is still implied indeed enshrined  in British law.  Academic Adrian Howe has looked at infidelity in the sentencing of men convicted of intimate partner homicide.  She points out that  “For over 300 years, criminal courts have regarded sexual infidelity as sufficiently grave provocation as to provide a warrant, indeed a ‘moral warrant’, for reducing murder to manslaughter.”  and that whilst “ ‘sexual infidelity’ was expressly excluded as a trigger for loss of control in the new loss of control defence laid down in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009”, “sexual infidelity still has mitigating prowess” in diminished responsibility pleas, as does men’s ‘distress’ if they kill a partner who is in the process of leaving them.  This ‘distress’ could just as easily be described men’s entitlement, or their rage that their partner has the audacity to reject them and move on.  A woman’s murder is somehow less heinous, deserving a reduced plea of manslaughter or a reduced sentence, if the court accepts that something that she did contributed to a man’s choice to kill her.

Dead women get no opportunity to defend their character; but even if they could, it should not make a difference.   Victims of violence should not be graded according to their worth, the balance would inevitably be tipped to discredit those not deemed to be ‘good’ women according to a scale reflecting class-biased and sexist values of what a woman should be.  We can see this when we look at the justice system and men’s sexual violence against women.  Women are not equal in the eyes of the law. The concept of ‘lady-like’ behaviour controls, judges and stratifies; acceptable/respectable standards of woman or girlhood align with middle-class standards of conduct and appearance.  Catharine MacKinnon argued  that the law divides women along indices of consent from ‘the virginal daughter’ to ‘whorelike wives and prostitutes’ with women who meet standards closer to the former, less likely to be found to have consented to unwanted intercourse, more likely to be believed regarding rape and sexual violence. Women who are socially or educationally disadvantaged are less likely to ‘perform well’ in the criminal justice system1 and women from working-class backgrounds are more likely to refuse to adhere to the status of victim, more likely to endure/cope and more likely to minimise injury2, as victims is it we who are on trial, we who are judged and the men who attack us who benefit from our perceived innocence.  In Rotherham, Manchester, Nottingham, Oxford and beyond, we’ve seen how labelling girls as slags and troublemakers allows the men who abuse to continue to do so.

Women victims of male violence should not have unequal status under the law.  Whether we have fucked one man or woman or five hundred; whether we pay our bills though prostitution, preaching, teaching or trust funds. Our laws, written by white middle-class men, favour white middle-class men and all women victims of male violence deserve justice, not just those of us who according to some scale of judgement are deemed ‘innocent’.


1 Temkin 2002b:6

2 Skeggs, 2005:971


Who Counts?

Just women killed by men: shifting definitions and learning though Counting Dead Women

It’s over two and a half years since I unintentionally started counting dead women back in January 2012 when the year began with report after report of women killed through domestic violence. I know now, but I didn’t then, that in the first three days of 2012, eight women in the UK were killed through male violence. Three days, eight dead women: three shot, two stabbed, one strangled,  one smothered and one beaten to death through 15 blunt force trauma injuries

Eight women aged between 20 and 87, their killers aged between 19 and 48 were husbands, partners, boyfriends or ex’s; , sister’s partner, aunt’s partner, robber and grandson.  I remember the feeling of incredulity that connections weren’t being made, that dots weren’t being joined, that no-one was talking about a pattern, or at least a series of related events.

At first, I counted women killed through domestic violence, then, on March 9th 2012, Ahmad Otak stabbed and killed Samantha Sykes, 18 and Kimberley Frank, 17. Otak wasn’t the boyfriend of either of them, but of Elisa Frank, Kimberley’s sister.  After killing Kimberly and Samantha in front of Eliza, he abducted Eliza and drove to Dover in an attempt to escape to France. The murders of Samantha and Kimberley didn’t strictly fit the definition of domestic violence, but they’re absolutely about a man trying to exert power, control and coercion in his relationship. The murders of Kimberley and Samantha were no less about male violence against women that they would have been if he had been the boyfriend of one of them.

I’d never planned to start counting and I think I’d imagined that I’d stop at the end of 2012.  At the end of the year, I tried to define who I was counting and who I wasn’t using the term ‘gender related murder’.  With the start of 2013, I started a new list and kept on counting.  Slowly finding a voice through social media, particularly twitter, I started blogging early in 2013. I wrote my first piece about how I started counting and some of the things I’d learned and called it Counting Dead Women. With the term ‘gender related murder’ I was trying to express that fatal male violence against women went beyond ‘domestic violence’; that there was more to men’s sexist misogynistic murders of women than the widely used ‘Two women a week killed by partners or ex-partners’, that socially constructed gender has an influence beyond domestic violence .  I had a notion, that I now reject, that I wasn’t talking about all instances where men had killed women; and I didn’t want to be accused of exaggerating and adding women just to make the numbers higher.

So, there were some women who had been killed by men that I didn’t add to the list, for example where she’d been killed but so had a man  – my thinking ‘So, this wasn’t just sexism/misogyny’ – or one case  where the killer was an employee of the woman he murdered, ‘maybe he’d have killed his employer even if he had been a man?’  I had more questions:  Who counts as a ‘UK woman’? What about women from the UK murdered on holiday? If I counted UK women murdered overseas, should I therefore not count women who were not from the UK if they were murdered here?  What about so-called mercy killings? In a country where assisted dying is not legal, surely some people might make the choice through lack of choice.  What about girls?  When does the killing of a child become sexist?

I started thinking about and using the term Femicide ‘the killing of women because they are women’ and wrote about it here in October 2013.  But it still didn’t feel right, the term  ‘femicide’ itself doesn’t name the agent, neither does the short definition above, purportedly because women can kill women as a result of patriarchal values. Of course that’s true, yet the 123-word definition of femicide agreed at the Vienna Symposium on Femicide whilst giving some useful examples of forms that fatal violence against women can take, still didn’t name ‘male violence’ and it excluded a group of women that I’d begun to identify through my counting: older women killed by younger men in what were sometimes described as ’botched robberies’ or muggings. The level of brutality that some men used against these women, the way some targeted women and the use of sexual violence, meant to me that their murders could not be excluded. I posed that question, that in a world where sexism and misogyny are so pervasive, are all but inescapable, can a man killing a woman ever not be a sexist act?  A fatal enactment of patriarchy?

It’s September 2014 now.  Last week, on Thursday, 82-year-old Palmira Silva became at least the 100th woman in the UK to be killed through male violence this year. I say at least the 100th because I have a list of more than 10 women’s names where the circumstances of their deaths has not been made publicly available.  In the same way that the list of 107 women’s names that I’d gathered by the end of 2012 is now a list of 126 women, I expect that time will reveal women who have been killed this year, women I haven’t heard about or who I haven’t yet been able to include because information about their deaths has not been released .

Because I’m counting dead women, keeping this list, I was able to make connections that others simply wouldn’t know about.  On Thursday evening, a tweet I wrote, identifying Palmira Silva as the third women to have been beheaded in London in less than six months was trending in London. My blog had more hits in one day than it usually has in a month.  Some people heard about my list for the first time and asked questions, making me realise it was perhaps time to revisit and update my explanation of what I’m doing and why.

Why am I counting women killed through male violence? Because if we don’t name the agent, we can’t hope to identify the causes.  If we don’t reveal the extent of men’s fatal violence against women and the various forms it can take, we will never be capable of a thorough enough analysis to reduce or end it.  If the bigger picture is revealed, people can begin to see the connections.  That’s why I know that I need to keep counting dead women and campaigning for this to be done officially.

My thinking has developed and changed since January 2012.  There’s no reason that it won’t continue to do so. Not everyone likes what I’m doing or how I’m doing it. Not everyone agrees with my analysis.  Not everyone thinks women killed by men are worth of counting.

So, who counts?  Women.  Women, aged 14 years and over, women killed by men in the UK and UK women killed overseas.  Regardless of the relationship between the woman and the man who killed her; regardless of how he killed her and who else he killed at the same time; regardless of the verdict reached when the case gets to court in our patriarchally constructed justice system created by men and continually delivering anything but justice to women; regardless of what is known and not known of his motive.  Just women killed by men.

Male entitlement to women’s spaces, bodies and lives


“Well I’d rather see you dead, little girl

Than to be with another man

 Catch you with another man 

That’s the end’a little girl”

 John Lennon and Paul McCartney


“I don’t know why you girls aren’t attracted to me but I will punish you all for it.   …….. If I can’t have you girls, I will destroy you. [laughs] You denied me a happy life and in turn I will deny all of you life, it’s only fair. I hate all of you.”

Elliot Rodger

Male entitlement is a deadly seam running through male violence against women whether coercive control, FGM, rape, prostitution, trafficking or murder.

According to government statistics, approximately 85,000 women are raped on average in England and Wales every year, that’s an average of 233 women raped by men in the UK every day. Last year in the UK, 142 women were killed through suspected male violence, that’s one dead woman every 2.5 days; and between January and April this year, 50 UK women have been killed. The World Health Organisation estimates that between 100 and 140 million girls and women worldwide have been subjected to one of the first three types of female genital mutilation. Prostitution, pornography and trafficking reduce women to commodities, possessions and objects for market exchange, men the purchasers, controllers and profit-makers.   It is estimated that prostitution revenue is around £110 billion per year worldwide, involves around 40-42 million people worldwide, of which 90% are dependent on a procurer,  75% are between 13 and 25 years old and the overwhelming majority are women. The global pornography industry was estimated to be worth  £57 billion in 2006.  Approximately 230 girls are still missing, more than a month after they were abducted in Chibok, Nigeria.  Women are still routinely ‘given away’ by their fathers in marriage ceremonies and fathers, not mothers are named on marriage certificates.  Male entitlement to women and girls and male violence against women and girls are inextricable.

Mass killings make news headlines in the way day-to-day fatal violence rarely does.  The day after Elliott Rodger murdered six people, 82-year old Harold Ambrose called the police from the home he shared with his wife in Boxted, Essex, and told them that he had shot her dead. When armed police reached the house, they found 77-year-old Wendy Ambrose,  sitting dead in a chair in the living room with two gunshots to her head and face. Harold Ambrose was found dead in the garden with a single gunshot wound to his head.  Harold Ambrose’s name has not trended on twitter, it has not made widespread national, let alone international, news coverage.  A man killing a woman is so ‘everyday’ that those who set the agenda do not deem it worthy of attention.

Male entitlement to women’s spaces crosses the realms of the theoretical, cultural and physical.  Whether it’s Seven Brides for Seven Brothers aka Stockholm Syndrome: the musical, misogynist fantasies of emotional and sexual abuse in the guise of stories for children or adult women, Tom Jones (for example and by no alone) with his songs of Christmas rape or murdering women, popular culture from fairy-tale to pop-music and film is littered with the message that women exist for men. The guy gets the girl. Reward. Happy ending. Some of the men that haven’t management to grasp the intricacies of women’s liberation from structural oppression demand to be, rather than support, feminists. Socially constructed gender and biological sex become conflated, woman is seen as a state of mind. Women-only conferences are threatened by men’s rights activists and women’s domestic and sexual violence services are increasingly re-commissioned as ‘gender-neutral’ services under a barely disguised reactionary ideology.  And whilst I was delighted to learn that Sweden has just elected the only formal feminist party to the EU parliament with a Roma woman, Soraya Post as its representative, my heart sank when I read that the role of men is seen as the same as that of women in the Swedish Feminist Initiative. How can we be the same when in patriarchal society we are anything but?

It has now been confirmed that Elliot Rodgers killed six people, four men and two women, the motivating force of his entitled misogyny and bitter jealously revealed in his self-recorded “last video”.  Elliot Rodger’s sense of entitlement is glaringly obvious. Prostitution was even suggested as a possible – missed – solution to Rodger’s choice to kill.  As explored here by Megan Murphy “What could possibly be a better cure for male entitlement than more male entitlement?” Glaringly obvious and not unusual, male entitlement is frequently accepted as an excuse or justification for everyday fatal male violence against women. For most women, leaving a violent relationship is the best way to end the violence (63%) but for over a third it is not: the violence reduced for eight per cent, stayed about the same for five per cent,changed to something else, such as stalking and other harassment, for 18 per cent, got worse for three per cent and only started when they split up for three per cent.  In my tracking of UK women killed through male violence, women being killed by men when they ended relationships, as they left, as they formed relationships with others or after leaving a violence relationship is ever present: Jabeen Younis, 30; Samantha Medland, 24; Rosemary Gill, 48; Chloe Siokos, 80; Gabielle Stanley, 28; Julie Beattie, 24; Da In Lee, 22; Shaista Khatoon, 33; Marion Vita, 48; Janee Parsons, 31. This list could go on and on. Whilst men’s murderous entitlement to women’s spaces, bodies and lives continues unchecked and sometimes supported by liberal capitalist ideology, male violence against women and girls will continue and the lists of women killed by men will continue to grow longer.