127 women


170 women killed by men (or where a man is the principal suspect) in 360 days.

  1. 3 January 2018: Elizabeta Lacatusu, 44, was killed by 19 knife injuries to her chest and neck inflicted by her former partner, Genu Armeanu, 45, whom she had left the previous month.
  2. 5 January 2018: Terrie-Anne Jones, 52, was stabbed 26 times by her partner John Lewis, 56. Her injuries included an 8cm deep stab wound to her heart, 13 to her neck, three to her collarbone, and two to her chest, with defence wounds to both hands.
  3. 8 January 2018: Claire Tavener, 27, was stabbed 10 times with a lock-knife – including two to the neck and two to the chest by her husband Andrew Tavener, 45, who had been violent and abusive to her during their relationship.
  4. 9 January 2018: Julie Clark, 59, was found dead at home, she had died of stab wounds. Jason Nellist, 40, has been charged with her murder.
  5. 10 Jan 2018: Geraldine Mellor, 32, was strangled to death by her boyfriend of 6 months,  Darrell Rose, 36.
  6. 12 January 2018: Amelia Blake, 22, was killed whist travelling in Australia by her boyfriend Brazil Gurung, 33, who also killed himself.
  7. 13 January 2018: Cassie Hayes, 28, was killed by Andrew Burke, 30, the ex-partner of her girlfriend. He slit her throat.
  8. 24 January 2017: Claire Harris, 44, was killed by her ex- partner Ricardo Wilson, 50, whom she had allowed to stay in the flat she rented whilst he looked for a new home. She had suffered 86 injuries – half of them to her head and face.
  9. 26 January 2018: Cheryl Gabriel-Hooper, 51, was shot dead. A 45-year-old man was also injured was arrested on suspicion of murder. Cheryl had recently separated from her 45-year-old husband John Hooper.
  10. 29 January 2018: Janet Scott was stabbed by her ex-boyfriend Simon Mellors, she survived the attack but he ran her over and killed her as she tried to flee. Mellors had killed a former partner, Pearl Black in 1999 and killed Janet whist on licence.
  11. 29 January 2018: Agnieszka Swierczynska-Jaros, 37 died of multiple organ failure in a house fire that had been started deliberately. 2 men were arrested on suspicion of arson with the intent to cause harm but were released due to lack of evidence. In her inquest the coroner said that he believed witnesses had been untruthful and was convinced that the fire was a deliberate act as there were two start points and traces of fuel throughout the house.
  12. 29 January 2018: Paula Harris, 44, was strangled to death by her partner Michael Foster, 39.
  13. 6 February 2017: Ruksana Begum, 47, was stabbed by Mohammed Tafham, 30, the former boyfriend of her daughter. Tafham attempted to make it look like she had killed herself by placing the knife in her hand. She had suffered three major stab wounds to the front of her body and one of them passed right through her heart. A pathologist told the jury it would have been ‘very difficult’ for Mrs Begum to have done that herself.
  14. 10 February 2018: Samantha Archer, 43, was injected with heroin by her boyfriend Andrew Williams who has been found guilty of manslaughter. Williams claims that she consented but also told officers he had pushed Ms Archer on to a settee “to calm her down” and that he had given her more than usual.
  15. 13 February 2018: Saeeda Hussain, 54, suffered serious head injuries and was found dead at home. Muhammed Javed, 58, has been charged with murder.
  16. 13 February 2108: Danielle Richardson, 24, was stabbed 15 times in her face, neck and back by her boyfriend Michael Marler, 37.
  17. 16 Feb 2018: Sarbjit Kaur, 38, was found dead at home after what was set up to look like a botched robbery. She had been asphyxiated. Three months later, her husband Gurpreet Singh, 42, was been charged with her murder
  18. 17 February 2018: Jill Sadler, 58, was found strangled by her husband David Sadler, 61.
  19. 18 February 2018: Heather Jordan, 34, was strangled by Martin Corns, 52. Corns was a workmate who had been harassing and stalking Heather for some time. She had told him that she did not want a relationship with him.
  20. 21 February 2018: Lynn McNally, 46, died of multiple stab wounds inflicted by her partner Paul Beddoes, 44.
  21. 22 February 2018: Charlotte Teeling, 33, was last seen alive and was reported missing 4 days later. She was found dead on 2 March. She had been killed by Richard Bailey, 40, who had a string of violent offences against women.
  22. 25 February 2018: Mary Ragoobeer, 46, her 2 sons and 2 other women were killed in an explosion in a shop below the Ragoobeer’s’ flat. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  23. 25 February 2018: Leah Reek, 18, and 4 others were killed in an explosion which destroyed a shop and the flat above it. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  24. 25 February 2018: Viktoria Ijevleva, 22, and 4 others were killed in an explosion which destroyed a shop and the flat above it. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering 5 people.
  25. 27 February 2018: Denise also know as Crystal Gossett, who has in her 40s and her daughter Diane, 19, (below) son Edward, 16 and Diane’s young daughter, were killed in house fire. Daniel Allen, 27, has been charged with four counts of murder and one count of arson with intent to cause danger to life.
  26. 27 February 2018: Sabrina also known as Elektra Gossett, 19, her daughter, mother (above) and brother, were killed in a house fire. Daniel Allen, 27, has been charged with four counts of murder and one count of arson with intent to cause danger to life.
  27. 27 February 2018: Laura Huteson, 21, was stabbed in the throat by Jason Gaskell, 23. Previous partners of Gaskell said that he had a history of violent sadomasochist sex.
  28. 28 February 2018: Anne James, 74, was stabbed more than 40 times in her head and back by Her grandson, Jason Gaskell, 23.
  29. Julie Reilly was sat seen alive on 6thFebruary 2018. Her disappearance became a murder investigation as parts of her body were found in April. Andrew Wallace, 41, has been charged with her murder.
  30. 5 March 2018: Laura Figueira de Farida, 47, was found stabbed to death at home shortly after the bodies of her husband Adelino Figueira de Farida, 57, and two sons aged 7 and 10, were found at the bottom of cliffs. Police say they believe she was and the children were murdered and are not looking for anyone else.
  31. 5 March 2018: Angela Rider, 51, was killed by Adrian Rodi, 51. It is not clear whether they had any connection.
  32. 6 March 2018: Fiona Scourfield, 54, was killed by her 16-year-old stepson Reuben Braithwaite who battered her head with an axe before slitting her throat with a Samuri sword.
  33. 15 March 2018: Hope Barden, 20, died of asphyxiation during a sex-act on the internet paid for by Jerome Danger, 45. Danger was a regular on-line sex forum user preoccupied with strangulation, stabbing, torture and death. He was due to be questioned in relation to Hope’s death whilst serving a 14-month prison sentence for possession of pornography consisting of “the worst images it is possible to image” when he was found dead.
  34. 17 March 2018: Jennifer Rogers, 56, was stabbed to death by her husband Peter Rogers, 61.
  35. 16 March 2018: Michelle Savage, 32, and her mum Heather Whitbread, 53, were shot dead by Michelle’s ex-husband Paul Savage.
  36. 16 March 2018: Heather Whitbread, 53, and her daughter Michelle Savage, 32, were shot dead by Michelle’s ex-husband Paul Savage.
  37. 21 March 2018: Diane Jones, 62, was stuck with a claw hammer wielded by her son Wayne Beer, 42. Her skull was fractured in several places.
  38. 30 March 2018: Jenny Cronin, 72, was doused in fuel and set alight by her ex-son-in-law Kieran Lynch, who also killed himself in the attack.
  39. 30 March 2018: Leyla Mtumwa, 36, was strangled then stabbed at least 49 times in her  head, neck, body and arms by her husband Kema Salum, 38. Salum had been extremely violent to a previous partner.
  40. 31 March 2018: Ourania Lambrou, 80, died after being pushed to the ground by Harry Goodwin-Sim, 29. She hit her head and died of a brain haemorrhage, which was caused by the assault.
  41. 2 April 2018: Tanesha Melbourne, 17, died in her mother’s arms after having been shot in a drive-by shooting.
  42. 6 April 2018: Tracy Stonehouse, 51, was battered repeatedly around the head, strangled her and then stabbed her six times by her husband Arthur Stonehouse, 73.
  43. 7 April 2018: Lesley Potter, 66, was strangled by her husband Derek Potter, 63. He attempted to make her death look like suicide but confessed to killing her to a colleague.
  44. 10 April 2018: Alexis Flynn, 42, died after having been stabbed to death, allegedly by her ex-partner, David Payne, 51. He was also charged with punching her on the face and body, putting his hands round her neck and compressing in February this year.
  45. 12 April 2018: Viktorija Sokolova, 14, was raped and killed through blunt force trauma to her head. She was found dead a day after being reported missing. A 16-year-old male has been charged with rape and murder.
  46. 12 April 2018: Margaret Howlett, 63, was stabbed to death by her husband of less approximately 1 year, David Pawluk, 59.
  47. 13 April 2018: Maryna Kavaliauskas, 35, was strangled to death with a ligature.
  48. 14 April 2018: Angela Craddock, 40, was beaten to death and died of blunt force trauma inflicted by her partner William Smart,54, who had just been released from prison for a previous assault on her. She had over 100 injuries and was so badly injured she had to be identified by her fingerprints
  49. 15 April 2018: Natasha Hill, 18, died of a head injury. Her partner Scott Clifford,33, was found guilty of her murder and a further two counts of actual bodily harm and one of common assault relating to incidents prior. She had 53 injuries including black eyes and a fractured skull.  He will serve 17 years and 165 days in prison.
  50. 15 April 2018: Samantha Clarke, 38, was stabbed to death. Jordan Clarke, 21, believed to be her nephew, has been charged with her murder.
  51. 18 April 2018: Jennifer Morgan, 33, was stabbed to death. Her partner, Hugh Baird, 39, was charged with her murder.
  52. 19 April 2018: Cecilia Seddon’s body was found concealed in a mattress in a property in Penzance, she had last been seen on 13 April. Clayton Hawkes, 52, with whom she was in a casual relationship, and Blaze Fisher, 25, were charged with perverting the course of justice. Hawkes was also charged with injecting her with a noxious substance (heroin and cocaine).  Her body was so badly decomposed when it was found that it was impossible to identify the cause of her death. She was 32.
  53. 20 April 2018: Julie Hunt, 47, was found seriously hurt after being attacked and died of her injuries. Florin Ion, 31, has been charged with her murder.
  54. 21 April 2018: Betty Lyons, 85, was strangled by her husband George Lyons, 88, who then killed himself. Her death was recorded as unlawful killing.
  55. 22 April 2018: Hollie Kerrell, 28, was reported missing and later found dead, buried in a shallow grave. Her husband of 5 years from who she had recently separated, Christopher Kerrell, 35, used a hammer to batter the right side of her head before strangling her.
  56. 26 April 2018: Elizabeth Lacey, 63, was stabbed to death.  Her son, Christopher Lacey, 21, has been detained under the Mental Health Act in relation to her death.
  57. 26 April 2018: Joleen Corr was attacked by her boyfriend Michael O’Connor, 23, in December 2016. She was left brain damaged and in severe pain, requiring 24-hour care. She died, aged 27, after a landmark court ruling that she should no longer be kept alive.
  58. 27 April 2018: Fiona Fisher, 51, was stabbed by her son Thomas Fisher,
  59. 28 April 2018: Faye Caliman, 30 was stabbed 12 times by her husband Marian Caliman in her face, neck, stomach, heart and back, where part of the blade snapped off. He who filmed himself slapping and shouting abuse at her before he killed her.
  60. 30 April 2018: Nicola Roberts, 44, was bludgeoned unconscious by her ex-husband Neil Barass, 45, before he stabbed her to death and then killed himself.
  61. Mihrican Mustafa, 38, was found dead in East London on 26 April 2019, she had been reported missing by her family in May 2018.
  62. 13 May 2018: Onees Khatoon, 71, was strangled by her son, Majid Butt, 51.
  63. 13 May 2020: Sarah Clayton, 21, was found dead in a tent on a campsite in East Sussex. In November 2020, her fiancé Christopher Cole, whom she had been seeing since February, was charged with her murder.
  64. 14 May 2018: Jessica Patel, 34, was found dead after suffering serious injuries. Her husband Mitesh Patel, 36, has been charged with her murder.
  65. 15 May 2018: Rosina Coleman, 85, was killed through blunt force trauma to her head and neck inflicted with a hammer. 65-year-old ‘handyman’ Paul Prause has been charged with her murder.
  66. 18 May 2018: Bernadette Green, 88, was found dead. Her death was not initially thought to be suspicious, but after post mortem tests, her son John Green, 65, was charged with her murder.
  67. 20 May 2018: Sophie Cavanagh, 31, was found dead. An autopsy found that she had died of compression to the neck. Her estranged husband, Martin Cavanagh, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  68. 20 May 2018: Angela Conoby, 54, stabbed to death by her partner of more than 30 years, Peter Stagis, 60.
  69. 25 May 2018: Christina Abbotts, 29, was found bludgeoned to death in her bed after failing to turn up at celebrations planned for her birthday. Zahid Naseem, 47, has been found guilty of her murder.
  70. 28 May 2018: Laura Mortimer, 31, and her 11-year-old daughter Ella Dalby, were stabbed to death by Christopher Boon, an ex-partner of Laura.. Police said Boon had a history of violence and in 2010 he was handed a suspended sentence for attacking a former partner and her mother.
  71. 29 May 2018: Denise Rosser, 38, was found dead at home where she had been beaten to death. She had recently told friends that she was frightened to go home. Simon Winston, 49, has been charged with her murder.
  72. 29 May 2018: Joanne Bishop, 39, died in hospital 4 days after her partner Shane Clarke, 52, stabbed her 29 times with a screwdriver.
  73. 31 May 2018: Jill Hibberd, 71, was stabbed to death. Lee Fueleop, 40, has been charged with murder, theft and burglary.
  74. Mihrican Mustafa, 38, was found dead in East London on 26 April 2019, she had been reported missing by her family in May 2018.
  75. In May 2017, Mary Gregory, 94, died in hospital due to smoke inhalation after a fire at her home in Lancashire. In November 2021, her son’s stepson, Tiernan Danton, 21, was found guilty of her murder. He disabled the fire alarm, impeded her exit and started the fire.
  76. 1 June 2018: Andra Hilitanu, 28, suffered multiple injuries including a fatal neck wound. Her unborn child also died in the attack. Her boyfriend,  Ioan Campeanu, 43, has been charged with her murder.
  77. 6 June 2018: Zofija Kaczan, 100, died in hospital after having her neck and cheek broken in a robbery. Arthur Waszkiewicz, 39, has been charged with robbery and manslaughter.
  78. 8 June 2018: Tina Cantello, 49, was reported missing after she failed to turn up for work. She was found dead the next day with multiple stab wounds. Geoffrey Hutton, 38, has been charged with her murder.
  79. 9 June 2018: Marie Gibson, 35, was found dead at home.  The cause of her death was described as “blunt force head, oblique facial injuries”  Her partner Shane Murphy, 27, has been charged with her murder.
  80. 12 June 2018: Tracy Patsalides , 40, was found dead with head and neck injuries in a seafront shelter in Eastbourne. Wayne Marshall, 38, has been charged with her murder.
  81. 23 June 2018: Gita Suri, 56, was stabbed to death. Her partner Gary Davis, 50 has been charged with her murder.
  82. 30 June 2018: Klarissa-Charlene Faith, 26, was found dead by police who had been called to her home. Her partner, Stuart Hall, 47, has been charged with her murder.
  83. 1 July 2018: Shuren Ma, 72, was found with a critical head injury and died at the scene by police who had been called to a disturbance. A man in his 70s was found with stab wounds. The police are not looking for anyone else.
  84. 6 July 2018: Samantha Toms, 47, was found dead at home. Her partner Ralph Fairman, 50, has been charged with her murder.
  85. 7 July 2018: Lorna Myers, 54, was killed by her son, Malo Myers, 32,  who was found guilty of manslaughter. Her 14-year-old son was also badly injured
  86. 8 July 2018: Stela Marisabel Domador-Kuzma, 34, was stabbed to death by Ryan Thornton. Thornton has also admitted to charges of possessing indecent images of children.
  87. 8 July 2018: Patricia Franks, 86, was killed by her husband Lawrence Franks, 84.
  88. 8 July 2018: Dawn Sturgess, 44, was killed after applying the nerve agent novichok which had been discarded in a counterfeit perfume bottle. The UK government believe it was the same military-grade substance used in an attack on a former Russian spy and are said the hold the Russian state responsible.
  89. 10 July 2018: Gina Ingles, 34, and her 4-year-old son, Milo, 4, died of smoke inhalation after a fire in their home. Her partner, 26, remains in hospital. A 23-year-old has been released under investigation pending further enquires.
  90. 10 July 2018: Joyce Burgess, 84, died of a heart attack in hospital 3 days after being assaulted by Johnny Brazil, 27, when her burgled her home. He caused significant injuries to her arms, face and chest and admitted manslaughter in June 2019.
  91. 12 July 2018: Riasat Bi, 86, died of multiple stab wounds. Madni Ahmed, 20, has been charged with her murder.
  92. 12 July 2018: Katerina Makunova, 17, was stabbed to death. Oluwaseyi Dada, 21, has been charged with her murder.
  93. 19 July 2018: Lesley Davies, 81, died in hospital after being attacked in the street. A 69-year-old man has been detained under the mental Health Act and her death is being treated as murder.
  94. 24 July 2018: Sheila Thomas, 69, was found dead with stab wounds at her home in South London. She had been killed  by her husband, David Thomas, 73.
  95. 26 July 2018: Lucy McHugh, 13, was found stabbed to death. Stephen-Alan Nicholson, 24, was bailed and later remanded in custody charged with withholding information.
  96. 29 July 2018: Stephanie (aka Stevie) Packman 64, was killed by her husband Michael Packman, He cut her throat and then tried to kill himself. He was given a 2-year suspended sentence.
  97. July 2018: Anne Reid, 81, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Susan Reid below. Knox is also facing charges in relation to other patients.
  98. July 2018: Susan Reid, 73, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Anne Reid above. Knox is also facing charges in relation to other patients.
  99. 27 July 2018: Sam Eastwood, 28, was found dead in a shallow grave 8 days after being strangled by her partner Michael Stirling, 32.
  100. 2 August 2018: Karen Peter, who was in her 50s, was found dead after a house fire in Dagenham, E. London. Thomas Peter, 50, has been charged with murder and arson with intent to endanger life.
  101. 3 August 2018: Kelly Franklin, 29, was stabbed to death in the street in what police have described as a ‘targeted attack’. Torbjorn (Ian) Kettlewell, 30, has been charged with her murder and possession of a bladed article.
  102. 6 August 2018: Katherine Kemp, 31, was found stabbed to death after her husband Thomas Kemp jumped out of a window.. Her death is being treated as murder, his as suicide.
  103. 6 August 2018: Tracey Evans, 52, was found dead in a flat in Leicestershire. Jeremy Clarke, 54, has been charged with her murder.
  104. 7 August 2018: Marie Walker, 61, was found dead by the police in Edinburgh after neighbours raised concerns. Robert Douglas, 62, has been charged with her murder.
  105. 15 August 2018: Simonne Kerr, 31, died after being stabbed in her home in South London. Her partner, Desmond Sylva, 40, has been charged with her murder.
  106. 15 August 2018: Barbara Davison, 66, was found dead in Redcar. Paul Plunkett, 61, has been charged with her murder.
  107. 21 August 2018: Kaltoun Saleh, 43, died in hospital after sustaining serious burns in a fire at her home in north London on 5 July. 4 children escaped unhurt. Abdi Quule, 42, had previously been charged with attempted murder.
  108. 22 August 2018: Carole Harrison, 73, was found dead after a fire at her house in South West London. Police say she had been attacked before the fire.
  109. 26 August 2018: Sharon Perett, 37, was found dead due to blunt force trauma trauma. Her partner Daniel O’Malley-Keyes, 30, has been charged with murder, it is alleged that Sharon was “beaten to death over the course of a weekend”.
  110. 26/27 August 2018: Raneem Oudeh, 22, was stabbed to death with her mother, Khaola Saleem, 49. Her former partner, Janbaz Tarin, 21, has been charged with their murders.
  111. 26/27 August 2018: Khaola Saleem, 49, was stabbed to death with her daughter, Raneem Oudeh, 22. Raneem’s former partner Janbaz Tarin, 21, has been charged with their murders.
  112. August 2018: Eileen Baxter, 75, died of multiple organ failure following the puncture of her bowl caused by a vaginal mesh implant. The insufficiently tested and poorly regulated plastic mesh devices have been called the greatest health scandal since Thalidomide.
  113. 28 August 2018: Lisa Butler, 48, was stabbed to death by her uncle Richard Butler, 66.
  114. 29 August 2018: Laura Harrison, 36, was beaten, strangled, and stabbed once in the forehead and 17 times in the buttocks by her boyfriend Jonathon Robinson, 32.
  115. 1 September 2018: Celia Levitt, 68, was strangled. Her son, Barry Levitt, 36, has been charged with her murder.
  116. 2 September 2018: Julie Owens, 52, died in hospital 11 days after being seriously assaulted, allegedly by her 30-year-old son John Owens.
  117. 5 September 2018: Joan Hoggett, 62, was stabbed multiple times whilst at work in a local shop. Ethan Mountain, 29, has been charged with her murder.
  118. 6 September 2018: Memunatu Warne, 43, died of smoke inhalation after a masked man riding a moped threw a petrol bomb through a window of the home of a relative she was visiting. 3 men, Kurtis Freeman, 21, Matthew John, 19, and Martin McArdle, 28, have been charged in relation to her death.
  119. 6 September 2018: Kylie Dembrey, 28, died following an attack at her home in which she was stabbed and strangled. Her partner Mark Sinclair, 30, has been charged with her murder.
  120. 9 September 2018: Susan Gyde, 52, was found by police when they were called to attend to a serious assault. She was pronounced dead later in hospital. Her husband Philip Gyde, has been charged with murder.
  121. 11 September 2018: Yvonne Robinson, 60, died at her home in Cumbria. A post mortem revealed that the cause of her death was blunt chest trauma. She had 15 rib fractures and was suffering from neglect. Her partner, Colin Sharples was arrested after her death but died before the post mortem was produced. Assistant coroner Dr Nicholas Shaw said had he not died ‘I have no doubt he would have been arrested and prosecuted in relation to Yvonne’s death and he might well have been charged with her murder.’ There was a history of him abusing her.
  122. 20 September 2018: Kay Martin, 49, was killed at her home in Sunderland by her husband Alan Martin, 53, who then killed himself.
  123. 21 September 2018: Cristina Magda-Calancea, 26, was stabbed to death in Kings Lynn, Norfolk, on 21 September. Gediminas Jasinska, 29, has been charged with her murder.
  124. 21 September 2018: Frances Hubbard, 81, died of multiple stab wounds. Her husband Michael Hubbard, 81has been detained under the Mental Health Act after being questioned by police in relation to her death.
  125. 23 September 2018: Sandra Zmijan, 32, was found bludgeoned to death with head injuries caused by a blunt object. Wojciech Tadewicz, 26, has been charged with her murder.
  126. 25 September 2018: Margaret Harris, 78, and her daughter Sharon Harris, 55, were stabbed to death. Witnesses said they tried to intervene in an argument between a man and a woman. Jack Ralph, 28, has been charged with their murders.
  127. 25 September 2018: Sharon Harris, 55, and her mother Margaret Harris, 78, were stabbed to death. Witnesses said they tried to intervene in an argument between a man and a woman. Jack Ralph, 28, has been charged with their murders.
  128. 26 September 2018: Jeanna Maher, 51, was bound with a ligature at her wrists and ankles and repeatedly hit on the head and a body with an unknown implement. Her husband Peter Maher, 578, has been charged with her murder.
  129. 30 September 2018: Glenda Jackson, 44, was stabbed to death. Two brothers, Nicholas Curtis, 32, and Stuart Curtis, 31, have been charged with her murder.
  130. 1 October 2018: Avan Najmadeen, 32, was found stabbed to death in her home. Dana Abdullah, 35, has been charged with her murder.
  131. 8 October 2018: Natalie Saunders, 33, was found dead. There were 85 separate sites of injury on her body – with a minimum of three blows found to her face, 13 to her head and neck, 23 to her torso, and 25 to her lower limbs. Her boyfriend Stephen Charlton, 24, has was found guilty of her murder.
  132. 9 October 2018: Sarah Wellgreen, 47, was last seen alive. Her former partner, Ben Lacomba, 38, was arrested on October 16 in connection with the investigation but later released. Before being rearrested and charged on 20th Sarah’s body has not yet been found.
  133. 22 October 2018: Nazia Ali, 25, was found dead. Mohammed Anhar, 32, has been charged with her murder.
  134. 24 October 2018: Teresa Garner, 46, died of significant head injuries from severe blunt force trauma with a hammer. Her husband John Garner, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  135. 28 October 2018: Lynn Forde, 35, was found dead after her partner Phil Osborne, 36, called the police and told them that her had killed her.
  136. 29 October 2018: Mavis Bran, 69, died in hospital of multiple organ failure after developing sepsis and hypothermia after suffering severe burns in the chip shop she owned with her husband. Geoff Bran, 70, her husband, was charged with and later cleared of her murder though admitted that he continued to serve customers in the chip shop rather than seek medical assistance. Mavis had previously confided in a friend that her was abusive to her.
  137. 30 October 2018: Sheena Jackson, 58 was found dead with Alexander Jackson, 65. Police have confirmed that they believe her death was murder but that of her husband was not suspicious and they are not looking for anyone else.
  138. 2 November 2018: Anne Marie Pomfret, 49, was found dead having suffered serious head injuries. Her husband David Pomfret, 50, was charged with her murder in April 2019 and found guilty in October 2019. He had battered her to death with a crowbar.
  139. 3 November 2018: Renata Poncova, 33, was pushed out of an 8-th floor window by her boyfriend Tony Taylor, 33.
  140. 6 November 2018: Fiona McDonald, 44, was found dead by police who had been called to attend to ‘a disturbance’. William Finlay, 56, has been charged in relation to her death.
  141. 8 Nov 2018: Natalie Smith, 34, was found with life threatening injuries and died in hospital. She had been stabbed. Her partner Craig Stewart, 36, was also dead. The police said Natalie was assaulted and they are not looking for anyone else in connection to the incident.
  142. 12 November 2018: Tanseen Sheikh, was found dead with multiple injuries at her home. Her husband, Naseer Khan, 66, has been charged with her murder and has been accused of bludgeoning her to death with a vase.
  143. 12 November 2018: Sana Muhammad, 35, was shot in the stomach with a crossbow. She was pronounced dead by doctors who were able to deliver the baby she was carrying. Ramanodge Unmathallegadoo, 50, has been charged with her murder.
  144. 12 November 2018: Katarzyna (Kasia) Paszek, 39, died in hospital after an alleged police attack. Police said a 40-year-old man had been released on conditional bail and their investigation was continuing.
  145. 13 November 2018: Pauline Kilkenny, 59, was found dead at her home after concerns were raised when she didn’t turn up at work. A 28-year-old male has been charged in relation to her death.
  146. 16 November 2018: Maureen Watkins, 75, died from multiple stab wounds. Her son Edward Watkins, has been charged in relation to her death.
  147. 16 November 2018: Valerie Neal, 75, was in hospital in a stoke unit in Blackpool. She died of a haemorrhage caused by a “non-medical related internal injury”, The post-mortem examination was one of a number carried out as part of an investigation into allegations of mistreatment and neglect on the hospital’s stroke unit. Investigating officers had received information about other allegations of serious sexual assaults against two patients, as well as the sexual assault of a healthcare professional working on the stroke unit.  A healthcare professional was arrested in 2021.
  148. 17 November 2018: Jacqueline Allen, 65, died in a house fire, allegedly shortly after warning the police that her daughter’s ex-partner was dangerous. Simon Childs, 51, is charged with her murder and the attempted murder of her 12-year-old granddaughter.
  149. 24 November 2018: Samantha Gosney, 29, was stabbed to death in her home. Adam Brettle, 23, has been charged in relation to her murder.
  150. 25 November 2018: Karen Cleary-Brown,  44 , went missing in Jamaica. She was found dead on 3rd December.  Shelden Hewitt,  32, who was working on her property has been charged with her murder.
  151. 27 November 2018: Lorraine Matos-Sanchez, 27, died of compression to her neck inflicted by her husband Jesus Matos-Sanchez, 31, who then killed himself.
  152. 28 November 2018: Kelly Worgan, 33, was strangled to death by her husband George Worgan, 35.
  153. 29 November 2018: Barbara Findlay, 58 was from Kennington, S. London but had lived in Jamaica for the last 5 years. She was reported missing on 29 November. She was found dead on 5 December.
  154. 1 December 2018: Grace Millane, 22, was from Essex. She went missing on 1st December whilst travelling in New Zealand. She was found dead on 9 December.  A  26 year old male, who has been granted name suppression whilst awaiting trial, has appeared in court  in relation to her death.
  155. 4 December2018: Maureen Whale, 77, collapsed on the phone when calling the police while her house was being burgled by two males. Post-mortem tests found she died from coronary heart disease brought on by the stress of the incident.
  156. 5 December 2018: Sally Cavender, 55, was taken to hospital critically injured but died shortly after. Robert Simpson-Scott, 43. Has been charged with her murder.
  157. 10 December 2018: June Knight, 79, died after falling from a balcony. Robert Knight, 52, has been charged in relation to her death. It was reported that a court heard “A devoted son killed his mother by lifting her over a balcony at a care home.”
  158. 13 December 2018: An as-yet-unnamed 30-year-old woman was found dead. Anthony Davis, 39, has been charged with her murder.
  159. 14 December 2018: Poppy Devey-Waterhouse, was declared dead by police and paramedics called to attend. Joe Atkinson, 25, has been charged with her murder. The preliminary cause of her death has been recorded as head and neck trauma.
  160. 17 December 2018: Sheila Small, 73, was beaten to death with a rolling pin and walking stick by her husband Edward Small, 76. Prosecutor David Brooke QC said she had wounds to the top of her head that had split the skin to the skull. She had up to 26 separate injuries to her face, extensive bruising to her body and all four limbs, a shattered shoulder blade, a broken collar bone and fractured ribs. Her right arm was “absolutely covered in bruises” and the index finger was broken.
  161. 19 December 2018: Lana Owen, 46, was found dead. Philip Andrews, 51, has been charged with her murder.
  162. 22 December 2018: Marissa Aldrich, 29, was found dead. Robert McWhir, 25, has been charged with her murder. A post mortem recorded that she had drowned.
  163. 22 December 2018: Joanne Gallagher 33, was stabbed 57 times by James Kennedy, 31.
  164. 23 December 2018: Carole Forth, 56, was found dead.  Her partner Edward Scott, 62, has been charged in relation to her death.
  165. 25 December 2018: Parwin Qureshi, 19, was found with serious injuries caused by multiple stab wounds. She was declared dead at the scene. Her husband Mohammad Qureshi, 27, has been charged with her murder.
  166. 26 December 2018: Angela Mittal, 41 was stabbed 59 times by her husband, Laurens Brand, 47, shortly after speaking to a solicitor about divorce.
  167. 26 December 2018: Alena Grlakova, 38, was found dead, naked in stream, in Rotherham, in April 2019 after having last been seen alive on boxing day 2018. She had been strangled And her body was covered In grit and stone. Gary Allen, 47, was found guilty of her murder.
  168. 26 December 2018: Joy Morgan, 21 was last seen alive at a church celebration in London. Ajibola Shogbamimu, 40, has been charged with her murder. Joy’s body has not been found.
  169. 30 December 2018: June Jones, 33, was found dead after being reported missing on 26 December, Police have said they believe she had been dead for some time. Her ex-boyfriend, Michael Foran, 32.
  170. 30 December 2018: Linda Jane McArity, 50, was found strangled. Ian Kerr, 36, was found guilty of her murder.

Last updated 13 November 2021.

Intimate Partner and Domestic Violence Homicides*: Sex Differences April 2012 – March 2015 (3 years)

Domestic Homicide or Intimate Partner Homicide?

The ONS defines domestic homicide as including the following: spouse, cohabiting partner, boyfriends/girlfriend, ex-spouse/ex-co-habiting partner, ex-boyfriend/girlfriend, adulterous relationship, lover’s spouse and emotional-rival as well as son/daughter, parent (including step and adopted relationships), which is broader than the generally understood partner or ex-partner to more closely align with the government definition of domestic violence.

Intimate partner homicides are a subset of this and are committed by cohabiting partner, boyfriends/girlfriend, ex-spouse/ex-co-habiting partner, ex-boyfriend/girlfriend, adulterous relationship, lover’s spouse and/or emotional-rival.

Domestic Violence – Who gets killed?

DV who.JPG

More women than men are killed in the context of ‘domestic homicide’, 315 women in 3 years compared to 117 men. Women were 73% of all victims of domestic violence homicide, men were 27% of all victims of domestic violence homicide.

Domestic Violence – Who gets killed by whom?

DV who by whom

Women killed in the context of ‘domestic  homicide’ are more likely than men to be killed by members of the opposite sex: Of the 315 female victims of ‘domestic  homicide’, 304 (97%) were killed by men. Of the 117 male victims of ‘domestic homicide’, 37 (32%) were killed by women

Domestic Violence -Who kills?

DV who kills

Intimate Partner Violence – Who gets killed?

IPV who

More women than men are killed by a partner/ex-partner, 243 women in 3 years compared to 60 men. Women were 80% of all victims of intimate partner homicide (243/303), men were 20% of all victims of intimate partner homicide (60/303)

Intimate Partner Violence – Who kills?

IPV who kills.JPG

Intimate Partner Violence – Who gets killed by whom?

IPV who by whom.JPG

Men killed by current or ex-intimate partners  are more likely than women to have been killed by someone of the same sex. Of the 60 male victims of intimate partner homicide, 27 (45%) were killed by men, 33 (55%) were killed by women. Of the 243 female victims of intimate partner homicide, 2 (1%) were killed by women, 241 (99%) were killed by men.

Of those killed in the context of intimate partner homicide by someone of the opposite sex, women were 88% (241/274) of victims, men were 12% (33/274), i.e. women are more than 7 times more likely to be  killed by a man, than men are by a women in the context of intimate partner homicide.


*Homicide  –   In England and Wales homicide is constituted of two offences: murder and manslaughter.  Murder is committed when a person (or persons) of sound mind unlawfully kills someone and had the intention to kill or cause grievous bodily harm.  There are three exceptions which can make a killing manslaughter rather than murder: that there was intent but a partial defence applies, that there was not intent but  there was gross negligence and risk of death, or thirdly, that there was no intent but conduct that was an unlawful act which involved danger and resulted in death. 
Data from Office for National Statistics (2016) Focus on Violence Crime and Sexual Offences. London. Office for National Statistics

Another Isolated Incident

23-year old Zaneta Balazova was found dead by her children on 2nd April 2015 in Benwell, Newcastle. Pavel Cina, 25, has been charged with her murder.

Newcastle City Councillor, Dipu Ahmed, commented:

 “People need to understand this is an isolated incident. Police reacted very quickly and made an arrest.”

“Let’s not raise tensions. We have to grieve for the person who is dead.”

“The people here have always been strong when things like this have happened in the past. No matter what community they are from we need to come together.”

Perhaps Dipu Ahmed would like to define what he means by isolated.

Zaneta Balazova is at least the 26th woman suspected to have been killed by a man in the UK in 2015.

Zaneta Balazova is at least the fifth woman suspected to have been killed by a man in Tyne and Wear in the last year.

Zaneta Balazova was part of a community called ‘women’. Women, my community, are being killed by men. Like Dipu Ahmed I want us to grieve for the woman who is dead. Unlike Dipu Ahmed, I believe that we need to raise tensions.  We need to be angry about yet another murder of one of our community. If members of any other ‘community’ than women, were being killed by members of another ‘community’, other than men, we would not be talking about isolated incidents.

Sex-differences and ‘domestic violence murders’*

*intimate partner homicides
What could we do if we wanted to hide the reality of men’s violence against women?

Firstly, we might have  a ‘gender neutral’ definition of domestic violence.  Maybe like the UK government which uses the following definition:

“any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality. The abuse can encompass, but is not limited to: psychological, physical, sexual, financial [and] emotional.”

Not only treating ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ as the same thing, this definition erases sex differences.  It includes the phrase ‘regardless of gender’ when in reality men – as a biological sex-class – are overwhelmingly the perpetrators, and women – as a biological sex-class – are overwhelming the victims of ‘domestic violence’ (more on the differences between male and female victims of intimate partner violence here).  It is also broad, including violence  and abuse committed between any family members.  Whilst this can be useful, for example allowing service provision to be made available for those experiencing violence and abuse from any  family member, sometimes it is important to focus on ‘intimate-partner violence’, including that committed by former intimate partners.

Secondly, we might present official data in a way that hides the extent of differences between women killed by men and men killed by women

The Office of National Statistics (ONS)  definition of partner/ex-partner homicide includes  killings by a “spouse, cohabiting partner, boyfriend/girlfriend, ex-spouse/ex-cohabiting partner/ex-boyfriend/girlfriend and adulterous relationship” but also “lover’s spouse and emotional rival”.  Data from the ONS found that in 2013/14, consistent with previous years, women were far more likely than men to be killed by partners or ex-partners than men.  84 women, around 53% of female homicide victims (over 16) had been killed by their current or a former partner, compared to 23 men (7% of male victims over 16).  So, we could say that government data tells us that one-in-five of those killed though ‘partner  violence’ is male.  Except this creates a false picture of what is really happening.

Combining data for the three years from 2011/12 to 2013/14, the ONS tell us that of 57 men killed in partner/ex-partner homicides, 21 of them, over a third, were killed by a man.  Of these 21 men killed by men in the context of partner/ex-partner homicides, 14 of them were killed by a lover’s spouse/love rival.  Of 249 women killed in partner/ex-partner homicides over the same 3 years, 247 were killed by a man, one by a woman (in one case the primary suspect is listed as unknown).  None of the female victims of partner/ex-partner homicide were killed by the spouse of their lover or an emotional rival. Similarly, no male victims of partner/ex-partner homicide were killed by a female spouse of their lover or a female emotional rival. Not only are men killed in the context of an intimate relationship less likely to be killed by their actual partner or ex-partner, they are much more likely than women to be killed by someone of the same sex.

sex differences and domestic violence snip

Another important difference between women and men killed in the context of intimate partner violence is the history of the relationship.  When men kill women partners or ex-partners, this usually follows months or years of them abusing her, when women kill male partners or ex-partners, it is usually after months or years of having been abused by the man they have killed. (Browne et al., 1998; Websdale, 1999; Dugan et al., 2003.)

So, there are four important differences when we compare women and men killed in the context of a current or previous intimate partnership (figures from the ONS 2011/12 to 2013/14 data):

  • Far fewer men than women are killed in the context of intimate partner violence (57 men in 3 years compared to 249 women)
  • Men are much more likely to be killed by the spouse of a partner or a love rival (14 out of 57 men, compared to none of the 249 women killed)
  • Men are much more likely than women to have been killed by someone of the same sex (21 of 57 male homicide victims were killed by a man, compared to one out or 249 women)
  • Men are more likely to have been killed by someone they were abusing, women are more likely to have been killed by someone they were being abused by.

Finally, we could look at ‘domestic violence’ or violence between current and former partners rather than male violence against women and girls

The government has a ‘strategy to end violence against women and girls’, whilst this pitifully fails to name ‘male violence’ it does at least acknowledge that the issue is broader than domestic violence and it does indicate that women and girls are disproportionately victimised.

If we look at men who kill women (who are not current or ex- intimate partners), it is clear that they have more in common with men who kill female current or former  partners, than the much smaller number of  women who kill male former partners. When men kill women, regardless of their relationship or lack of it, they are doing so in the context of a society in which men’s violence against women is entrenched and systemic. Sexual violence runs through the murders of women by men who are not partners or ex-partners. Gender, the social constructs of masculinity and femininity are also integral.

What could we do if we wanted to hide the reality of men’s violence against women?  We could ensure that our social and  political agenda setters of mainly men –  whose self-interest and privilege allowed them to consciously or unconsciously ignore, deny or dismiss the reality of men’s violence against women –  not only hid the reality of men’s violence against women but also created the illusion that they’re dealing with the problem.

A man suspected of being involved in Huddersfield’s worst-ever mass murder has been arrested in Pakistan: Erasing male violence against women and girls

Shahid Mohammed a  man suspected of being involved in Huddersfield’s worst-ever mass murder has been arrested in Pakistan, the  – so far local – news tells us.

Almost 13 years ago, In May 2002, 8 people1, spanning three generations of one family, were killed and three others escaped, after petrol was poured through the letter box of a house, in Birkby, Hudsdersfield.  The house had been destroyed by the time fire engines had arrived, just four minutes after neighbours had called them upon hearing the windows smash as petrol-bombs were thrown. The youngest killed was a six-month-old baby, the oldest 54.

News of the arrest of Shahid Mohammed immediately caught my attention. Like the killers and their victims, I’m from Huddersfield. I was living and working there for an organisation that ran women’s refuges at the time of the fire.

Three young men were arrested shortly after the incident.  The following year, Shaied Iqbal was convicted of eight counts of murder whilst Shakiel Shazad Amir, and Nazar Hussain were convicted of manslaughter. Shahid Mohammed had also been  arrested but ran away whilst on bail.

What I haven’t seen in the news reports is an analysis of sex.  All those charged in connection with the murders were male, as is Shahid Mohammed.  That seven of the eight victims were women or girls seems to have evaded anyone’s notice. Every report has included the names of the dead, those who escaped and those charged. All but one of them, their visiting grandmother, were born and grew up in Huddersfield. Their names tell us that they were of south Asian descent.  I wish I could believe that the omission of mention of the race of both victims and perpetrators meant that this was not seen as important, that it was a reflection of a society where people are valued equally, but I don’t.  The names say enough, the names tell us ‘other’, the names tell us Muslim.  But the lack of mention of sex fails to locate this act within the context of men’s violence against women and girls.

We need to name male violence against women and girls. Identifying trends and making links is important, it helps us to identify causes and therefore – where there is the will – the potential to find solutions and create change. Men’s fatal violence against women and girls crosses boundaries of race, religion and culture but immediately when race or religion is a factor in violence, it is identified. Why isn’t it the same with sexist and misogynistic murder? Could it be that it is only when the primary aggressors are those acting against, not reinforcing the dominant ideology, that the majority make links?

1 Tayyaba Batool, 13, Rabiah Batool, 10, Ateeqa Nawaz, 6, Aneesa Nawaz, 2, Najeeba Nawaz, 6 months, their mother Nafeesa Aziz, 35, and their uncle Mohammed ateeq-ur-Rehman, 18, their grandmother, Zaib-un-Nisa, 54.


Stacey Hyde: A frightened 17-year-old

Stacey Hyde

In April this year, John Butler, 62, went to the flat of his former partner, Pauline Butler, 61, and stabbed her.  In his trial, Butler told the court that he couldn’t remember how the knife had ended up in his hand and that he had fallen after she had pushed him, causing him to accidentally injure her. The court heard that Pauline Butler had previously threatened him with a knife.  Of course, being dead, she wasn’t able to challenge his version of events.   Pauline had been found with a number of knife wounds to her neck, chest and back.  As judge, Mr Justice Edis pointed out, had Butler not wanted Pauline to die, he would have called an ambulance, rather than remove and wash the knife, take her dog to his home, drink a beer and smoke a cigar. Butler was found guilty of manslaughter, not murder, due to loss of control, and sentenced to jail for seven years in jail.

Sybil Sibthorpe was 80 years-old in May, 2012, when she was found in her garden with “significant” head injuries after being beaten by her former tenant Lee Grainger, 41.  Grainger pleaded guilty to manslaughter on the grounds of diminished responsibility and was sentenced to 12 and-a-half years. According to the judge, Grainger was “a significant danger to the public”.

Adrian Muir, 51, killed Pamela Jackson, 55, by beating or kicking her head with such force that she suffered fractures to her skull and bleeding to her brain. He then drove over 120 miles before digging a grave in moorland and burying her with a bunch of flowers in a Tesco carrier bag. Muir initially denied murder and claimed he had been framed.  He posted fake entries from her Facebook page suggesting she was still alive. It took police more than two months before they found Pamela’s body in May 2013.  Muir’s fingerprint was found on the carrier bag inside her grave, and a CCTV camera caught him cleaning the back of his car in a supermarket car park.  He later claimed that she had attacked him, “like a bloody devil”.  Muir was jailed for 18 years, not for murder, but manslaughter.

Felipe Lopes, 26, had a six-year police history of violent assaults on women before being jailed for 12 weeks in 2012 after tracking down and assaulting an ex-girlfriend whom he had previously stabbed. Within two weeks of his release, in January 2013, he had beaten 23-year-old Anastasia Voykina to death with a hockey stick. Before he killed her, neighbours had called the police to her flat on two occasions, because, they said, his attacks on her were so severe, the building was vibrating. Judge Richard Marks said to Lopes: “There is no doubt in my mind you intended to kill her. You are and will remain for an indefinite time a significantly dangerous man, particularly to women.” Lopes pleaded guilty to manslaughter, not murder, on the grounds of diminished responsibility because of his mental health problems.  He was jailed for a minimum term of seven years and three months.

Like Filipe Lopes, Vincent Francis had a history of violence against women.  In court it was alleged that he had assaulted his girlfriend, Holly Banwell, at least 27 times. Some of the assaults had been overhead by neighbours; it was also alleged that he had attacked a previous partner.  On 4 September, 2009, Holly  had been out with her 17-year-old friend Stacey Hyde, they  had then gone back to the flat that Holly and Vince Francis shared.  Stacey remembers waking up to hear Holly screaming but not what happened next.  A 72-year-old neighbour told police that she saw Francis trying to swing Stacey  around by her pony tail while her friend Holly looked on, screaming.  Holly Banwell called the police, telling them “…my boyfriend is beating my friend… I need the police ASAP”.  On the recorded call she is then heard saying “they are fighting”, before screaming “Stacey has a knife and has stabbed him”.  Stacey was sobbing when the police arrived, she told them “he tried to kill me…I had to help Holly…he was going to kill her…I thought he would kill me…”.

In March 2010, at the age of 18, Stacey Hyde was convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.  While awaiting trial she had been given well-intentioned but misguided advice from other prisoners affecting her responses in court and possibly, consequently, how she was viewed by the jury. The law has been changed since then too, so that loss of control caused by fear of serious violence can now be taken into account, but this wasn’t an option at the time Stacey was convicted.

Stacey is due in court to appeal her conviction on Thursday and Friday this week, the 13th and 14th November, 2014.  Since her conviction, new evidence has emerged about her mental health, for example that she had ADHD at the time of her offence, and in addition, other psychiatric diagnoses resulting from a difficult childhood.  If Stacey’s appeal is accepted, her conviction for murder will be overturned for one of manslaughter.  She has already served five years and it is possible that she will be released from custody.

Trials for murder and manslaughter are complex. Each with their own particular circumstances and it is right that those circumstances are taken into account.  I’m sure there are many reasons why Stacey’s case can’t be directly compared to those of the men I’ve mentioned above, and yet: Unlike 62-year-old John Butler who claimed he’d been attacked by Pauline Butler before he stabbed her, or 51-year-old Adrian Muir, who claimed Pamela Jackson attacked him before he beat her head and fractured her skull, a 72-year-old neighbour had witnessed Francis attacking Stacey, and Holly Banwell called the police telling them that he was beating her.  Also, unlike Muir, she didn’t lie her way through a two-month police investigation.  Like 41-year-old Lee Granger, who killed 80-year-old Sybil Sibthorpe, at 17, she was half the age of the man she killed.  But a 17-year-old young woman – in fear of her life and that of her friend –  killing a 34 year-old-man, cannot really be compared to a 41-year-old man,  described by a judge as a risk to the public,  bearing a grudge against and beating to death his 80-year-old former landlord.

Stacey was 17, legally a child, a child with a history of mental health problems and experience of sexual violence, when she killed 34-year-old Vincent Francis, a man with a history of perpetrating violence. Her claims of being assaulted by the man she killed are not unverified. She is not a risk to the public. She did not lie and deny her actions though the investigation.  She did not try to hide a body. Unlike John Butler, Lee Grainger, Adrian Muir, Filipe Lopes and many men who have killed women since she killed Vincent Francis, Stacey Hyde was found guilty of murder, not manslaughter. Stacey has never denied that she killed Vincent Francis, but she wasn’t a murderer, she was a child, a frightened child.

 Please support Justice for Women in their fight for justice for Stacey Hyde.

Why the hierarchy of dead women and girls?

Like anyone else, I was saddened to wake up to the news that a body has been found in the search for 14-year-old Alice Gross, and that her disappearance has now become a murder inquiry; similarly, I felt sickened to hear about the rape and  murder of 23-year old Hannah Witheridge, just two weeks ago.

But since Alice went missing – and in addition to Hannah – at least ten other UK women have been killed through suspected male violence.  Why don’t we all know the name of Leighann Duffy, 26, stabbed to death in Walthamstow? What about Glynis Bensley, 48, who witnesses said was pursued by two masked men on bikes before she was killed? Perhaps some people will recall the name of Pennie Davis, 47, found dead in a field, stabbed as she tended her horse.  What about Serena Hickey, Dorothy Brown, 66; Nicola Mckenzie, 37; Davinia Loynton, 59; or Lorna McCarthy, 50?

The murder of 82-year-old Palmira Silva who was beheaded in London was also front page news this month, but few were aware that she was the third woman to have been beheaded in London in less than six months, after  Tahira Ahmed, 38, in June and  Judith Nibbs, 60, in April. Was this simply because beheading is big news at the moment due to the murders of David Haines,  James Foley and Steven Sotloff?

The killer of 15-year-old Shereka Marsh, shot in Hackney earlier this year, was found guilty of manslaughter this week.  Did we all mourn the 15-year-old school-girl, described by teachers as one of their “shining stars”, on course to sit 10 GCSEs this summer?  Wasn’t being accidentally shot by your boyfriend also big news, also international news, this month?

Men’s violence against women and girls, systemic, connected, has killed at least 11 dead UK women this month.  At least 111 UK women have been killed through suspected male violence so far this year, 111 women in 272 days is one dead woman every 2.45 days.

Older, black, usually but not all, killed by men they had known and loved – their husbands, boyfriends, ex’s and sons (8 women have been killed by their sons this year, 13 last year, 16 the year before) – why don’t we care so much about these women? Young, white and blond, killed by a stranger, hold the front pages – but don’t bother to make the connections with other women killed by men; talk about anything, immigration, terrorism, tourism, guns and gangs – talk about anything except male violence against women and girls.

Innocent Victims? Isn’t that just another way of blaming women and girls for men’s violence?

The phrase “innocent victim” has re-emerged to describe Sabrina Moss – a 24-year old teacher who was shot dead in London as she celebrated her birthday in August 2013 – in British bastions of judgemental conservative journalism The Daily Mail and the Express.

It’s a phrase that came in to my consciousness when it was used to describe 16-year-old Jane MacDonald who was murdered on 26 June 1977 by being hit on the head with a hammer three times and stabbed in the chest and back around 20 times. When her face-down body was turned over by police, they found a broken bottle complete with screw-top embedded in her chest.  She was murdered by Peter Sutcliffe and was the fifth woman of thirteen that he is known to have killed.  Before her, there had been 28-year-old Wilma McCann, beaten with a hammer and stabbed to death in October 1975; 42-year-old Emily Jackson, beaten with a hammer and stabbed 52 times with a screw-driver in January 1975; Irene Richardson, 28, beaten with a hammer and stabbed and slashed with a Stanley knife in February 1977 and Patricia Atkinson, 32, beaten and clawed with a hammer and also stabbed, in April 1977.  Wilma McCann, Emily Jackson, Irene Richardson and Patricia Atkinson had not been described by the press as innocent victims.  Why? Because Jane MacDonald was the first woman known to have been murdered by Sutcliffe who was not in prostitution.  Sutcliffe himself shared this belief that prostituted women were less worthy than none prostituted women.  In his confession, referring to Jane MacDonald, he said

“The next one I did I still feel terrible about, it was the young girl Jayne MacDonald. I read recently about her father dying of a broken heart and it brought it all back to me. I realised what sort of a monster I had become. I believed at the time I did it that she was a prostitute.”


“When I saw in the papers that MacDonald was so young and not a prostitute, I felt like someone inhuman and I realised that it was a devil driving me against my will and that I was a beast.”

Leaving aside Sutcliffe’s failure to take responsibility for his actions –  blaming them on being driven by the devil, not his own violent misogyny –  the implication is clear, that beating and stabbing four prostituted women to death was something less than monstrous. He became a monster when he killed Jane, not when he had killed Wilma, Emily, Irene and Patricia.

This week, Oscar Pistorius was found not guilty of the murder of Reeva Steenkamp, the woman he killed.  State prosecutor Gerrie Nel refered to Pistorius as causing “the death of an innocent woman” and again referred to him being “convicted of a serious crime of killing an innocent woman.”  Of course, Reeva Steenkamp, in comparison to Pistorius was innocent, but surely that is almost always the case when comparing murder victims to their killers.    If not innocent, what are they? Guilty? Or perhaps somehow complicit in their own death?

Despite attempts at law reform, some women’s complicity in their own murders is still implied indeed enshrined  in British law.  Academic Adrian Howe has looked at infidelity in the sentencing of men convicted of intimate partner homicide.  She points out that  “For over 300 years, criminal courts have regarded sexual infidelity as sufficiently grave provocation as to provide a warrant, indeed a ‘moral warrant’, for reducing murder to manslaughter.”  and that whilst “ ‘sexual infidelity’ was expressly excluded as a trigger for loss of control in the new loss of control defence laid down in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009”, “sexual infidelity still has mitigating prowess” in diminished responsibility pleas, as does men’s ‘distress’ if they kill a partner who is in the process of leaving them.  This ‘distress’ could just as easily be described men’s entitlement, or their rage that their partner has the audacity to reject them and move on.  A woman’s murder is somehow less heinous, deserving a reduced plea of manslaughter or a reduced sentence, if the court accepts that something that she did contributed to a man’s choice to kill her.

Dead women get no opportunity to defend their character; but even if they could, it should not make a difference.   Victims of violence should not be graded according to their worth, the balance would inevitably be tipped to discredit those not deemed to be ‘good’ women according to a scale reflecting class-biased and sexist values of what a woman should be.  We can see this when we look at the justice system and men’s sexual violence against women.  Women are not equal in the eyes of the law. The concept of ‘lady-like’ behaviour controls, judges and stratifies; acceptable/respectable standards of woman or girlhood align with middle-class standards of conduct and appearance.  Catharine MacKinnon argued  that the law divides women along indices of consent from ‘the virginal daughter’ to ‘whorelike wives and prostitutes’ with women who meet standards closer to the former, less likely to be found to have consented to unwanted intercourse, more likely to be believed regarding rape and sexual violence. Women who are socially or educationally disadvantaged are less likely to ‘perform well’ in the criminal justice system1 and women from working-class backgrounds are more likely to refuse to adhere to the status of victim, more likely to endure/cope and more likely to minimise injury2, as victims is it we who are on trial, we who are judged and the men who attack us who benefit from our perceived innocence.  In Rotherham, Manchester, Nottingham, Oxford and beyond, we’ve seen how labelling girls as slags and troublemakers allows the men who abuse to continue to do so.

Women victims of male violence should not have unequal status under the law.  Whether we have fucked one man or woman or five hundred; whether we pay our bills though prostitution, preaching, teaching or trust funds. Our laws, written by white middle-class men, favour white middle-class men and all women victims of male violence deserve justice, not just those of us who according to some scale of judgement are deemed ‘innocent’.


1 Temkin 2002b:6

2 Skeggs, 2005:971


Who Counts?

Just women killed by men: shifting definitions and learning though Counting Dead Women

It’s over two and a half years since I unintentionally started counting dead women back in January 2012 when the year began with report after report of women killed through domestic violence. I know now, but I didn’t then, that in the first three days of 2012, eight women in the UK were killed through male violence. Three days, eight dead women: three shot, two stabbed, one strangled,  one smothered and one beaten to death through 15 blunt force trauma injuries

Eight women aged between 20 and 87, their killers aged between 19 and 48 were husbands, partners, boyfriends or ex’s; , sister’s partner, aunt’s partner, robber and grandson.  I remember the feeling of incredulity that connections weren’t being made, that dots weren’t being joined, that no-one was talking about a pattern, or at least a series of related events.

At first, I counted women killed through domestic violence, then, on March 9th 2012, Ahmad Otak stabbed and killed Samantha Sykes, 18 and Kimberley Frank, 17. Otak wasn’t the boyfriend of either of them, but of Elisa Frank, Kimberley’s sister.  After killing Kimberly and Samantha in front of Eliza, he abducted Eliza and drove to Dover in an attempt to escape to France. The murders of Samantha and Kimberley didn’t strictly fit the definition of domestic violence, but they’re absolutely about a man trying to exert power, control and coercion in his relationship. The murders of Kimberley and Samantha were no less about male violence against women that they would have been if he had been the boyfriend of one of them.

I’d never planned to start counting and I think I’d imagined that I’d stop at the end of 2012.  At the end of the year, I tried to define who I was counting and who I wasn’t using the term ‘gender related murder’.  With the start of 2013, I started a new list and kept on counting.  Slowly finding a voice through social media, particularly twitter, I started blogging early in 2013. I wrote my first piece about how I started counting and some of the things I’d learned and called it Counting Dead Women. With the term ‘gender related murder’ I was trying to express that fatal male violence against women went beyond ‘domestic violence’; that there was more to men’s sexist misogynistic murders of women than the widely used ‘Two women a week killed by partners or ex-partners’, that socially constructed gender has an influence beyond domestic violence .  I had a notion, that I now reject, that I wasn’t talking about all instances where men had killed women; and I didn’t want to be accused of exaggerating and adding women just to make the numbers higher.

So, there were some women who had been killed by men that I didn’t add to the list, for example where she’d been killed but so had a man  – my thinking ‘So, this wasn’t just sexism/misogyny’ – or one case  where the killer was an employee of the woman he murdered, ‘maybe he’d have killed his employer even if he had been a man?’  I had more questions:  Who counts as a ‘UK woman’? What about women from the UK murdered on holiday? If I counted UK women murdered overseas, should I therefore not count women who were not from the UK if they were murdered here?  What about so-called mercy killings? In a country where assisted dying is not legal, surely some people might make the choice through lack of choice.  What about girls?  When does the killing of a child become sexist?

I started thinking about and using the term Femicide ‘the killing of women because they are women’ and wrote about it here in October 2013.  But it still didn’t feel right, the term  ‘femicide’ itself doesn’t name the agent, neither does the short definition above, purportedly because women can kill women as a result of patriarchal values. Of course that’s true, yet the 123-word definition of femicide agreed at the Vienna Symposium on Femicide whilst giving some useful examples of forms that fatal violence against women can take, still didn’t name ‘male violence’ and it excluded a group of women that I’d begun to identify through my counting: older women killed by younger men in what were sometimes described as ’botched robberies’ or muggings. The level of brutality that some men used against these women, the way some targeted women and the use of sexual violence, meant to me that their murders could not be excluded. I posed that question, that in a world where sexism and misogyny are so pervasive, are all but inescapable, can a man killing a woman ever not be a sexist act?  A fatal enactment of patriarchy?

It’s September 2014 now.  Last week, on Thursday, 82-year-old Palmira Silva became at least the 100th woman in the UK to be killed through male violence this year. I say at least the 100th because I have a list of more than 10 women’s names where the circumstances of their deaths has not been made publicly available.  In the same way that the list of 107 women’s names that I’d gathered by the end of 2012 is now a list of 126 women, I expect that time will reveal women who have been killed this year, women I haven’t heard about or who I haven’t yet been able to include because information about their deaths has not been released .

Because I’m counting dead women, keeping this list, I was able to make connections that others simply wouldn’t know about.  On Thursday evening, a tweet I wrote, identifying Palmira Silva as the third women to have been beheaded in London in less than six months was trending in London. My blog had more hits in one day than it usually has in a month.  Some people heard about my list for the first time and asked questions, making me realise it was perhaps time to revisit and update my explanation of what I’m doing and why.

Why am I counting women killed through male violence? Because if we don’t name the agent, we can’t hope to identify the causes.  If we don’t reveal the extent of men’s fatal violence against women and the various forms it can take, we will never be capable of a thorough enough analysis to reduce or end it.  If the bigger picture is revealed, people can begin to see the connections.  That’s why I know that I need to keep counting dead women and campaigning for this to be done officially.

My thinking has developed and changed since January 2012.  There’s no reason that it won’t continue to do so. Not everyone likes what I’m doing or how I’m doing it. Not everyone agrees with my analysis.  Not everyone thinks women killed by men are worth of counting.

So, who counts?  Women.  Women, aged 14 years and over, women killed by men in the UK and UK women killed overseas.  Regardless of the relationship between the woman and the man who killed her; regardless of how he killed her and who else he killed at the same time; regardless of the verdict reached when the case gets to court in our patriarchally constructed justice system created by men and continually delivering anything but justice to women; regardless of what is known and not known of his motive.  Just women killed by men.

Counting Dead Women: Reviewing 2012 – How 107 dead women became 126

When I talk about why I started counting dead women, I begin with my realisation that in the first three days of 2012, seven UK women had been killed though male violence.  More than two years later, I found out it wasn’t seven women in three days, but eight.

Betty Yates, a retired teacher who was 77 years-old, was found dead at home in her house in Bewdley, Worcestershire on 4th January.  She had been beaten with a walking stick and stabbed in the head four times, two days earlier.  The knife used to kill her was still embedded in her neck.  Stephen Farrow, 48, was charged with her murder through DNA evidence matched after he murdered vicar John Suddard on 13 February.

2012 then, in the first three days of the year, eight women were killed though male violence.  Three days: 8 dead women: 3 shot, 2 stabbed, 1 strangled, 1 smothered and one beaten to death through 15 blunt force trauma injuries.

By the end of the year, I’d counted and named 107 women killed though suspected male violence, but as cases of women’s killings went to court, that number grew.  By February 2013 it was 109 women, by  the end of July it became 114, then 118.  In October 2013, I added Carole Waugh and then later Louise Evans;  in March 2014, I added Sally Ann Harrison.  May 2014, and not only is there Betty Yates but Jenny Methven, Yong Li Qui, Patricia Seddon and Eleftheria Demetriou.

Jenny Methven was 80 years-old when she was found dead on 20th February, she died through blunt force injuries to her head and body. Her skull was fractured from one side to the other with bone splinters embedded in her brain. 46-year-old William Kean has been found guilty of her murder.

Yong Li Qui, 42,  was murdered by Gang Wang, 48.  In his trial, he denied he intended to kill her or cause her really serious harm. He had beaten her head with an object so severely that her skull was fractured and her brain tissue could be seen.  She died on 25th March, a week after being attacked.

Patricia Seddon, 65, and her husband Robert, 68, were shot dead by their son Stephen. Four months earlier, he had staged a road accident and attempted to kill them by driving into a canal with them strapped in the back seats of a car.

Eleftheria Demetriou, 79, was stabbed to death by Hakim Abdillah, 38, she was killed through multiple wounds to the heart and spleen by a man she had befriended and who used to call her ‘grandma’.

I’ve written before about how I initially started counting women killed by men who were partners, ex-partners or family members: domestic violence; I’ve also looked at how femicide is a more useful but still problematic term because, whilst using patriarchal society as a context  it focuses on women killed because they are women  and not enough on toxic masculinity.

Between the five women above, two, Betty Yates and Patricia Seddon were murdered by men who also murdered a man.  I don’t know how the sex of 80 year-old Jenny Methven, 79 year-old Eleftheria Demetriou, and 77 year-old Betty, was relevant when they were killed by William Kean, 46,  Hakim Abdillah, 38 and Stephen Farrow, 48.  The age gaps between killer and victim, the inevitable differences in their strength; and the brutality of their attacks mean masculinity and power over women and misogyny, the hatred of women cannot be ruled out.   But the differences between the numbers of men who kill women (or men) to the number of women who kill women or men; and the number of men who kill their mothers (or father) to the number of women who kill a parent mean that if we want to end male violence against women, we need to look at patriarchy, sex inequality and socially constructed toxic gender for the answers.

The names of all 126 UK women killed through male violence in 2012 can be found here.