127 women


175 women killed by men, or where a man or men have been linked to the suspicious death of a woman.

  1. 3 January 2018: Elisabeta Lacatusu, 44, was killed by 19 knife injuries to her chest and neck inflicted by her former partner, Genu Armeanu, 45, whom she had left the previous month. Armeanu, of East London, was convicted of murder and sentenced to a minimum of 28 years.
  2. 5 January 2018: Tamara Sinakova, 61, was strangled to death by her partner, Rojs Avaliani, 37, at their home in Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire. Avaliani was found guilty of murder. He was sentenced to life and ordered to serve a minimum of 16.5 years imprisonment.
  3. 5 January 2018: Terrie-Anne Jones, 33, was stabbed 26 times by her partner John Lewis, 56, at her home in Neath Port Talbot, South Wales. Her injuries included an 8cm deep stab wound to her heart, 13 to her neck, three to her collarbone, and two to her chest, with defence wounds to both hands. Lewis was sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum of 19 years for her murder.
  4. 8 January 2018: Claire Tavener, 27, was stabbed 10 times with a lock-knife – including two to the neck and two to the chest by her husband Andrew Tavener, 45. A Domestic Homicide Review found that Andrew Tavener had a history of violence and abuse against Claire, and other women. Tavener was sentenced to life imprisonment and ordered to serve at least 16 years and eight months.
  5. 9 January 2018: Julie Clark, 59, was found dead at her home in Hereford. She had died of stab wounds, inflicted by her son, Jason Nellist, 41. Nellist was given an indefinite hospital order after being found unfit to plea because of mental illness.
  6. 10 January 2018: Geraldine Mellor, also known is Geri, 32, was strangled to death by her boyfriend of six months, Darrell Rose, 36, after she tried to separate from him. Darrell Rose strangled Geri in her own home, in Devon. His claims of self-defence were dismissed by the judge as ‘unbelievable’. Rose was sentenced to a minimum of 15 years in prison for murder.
  7. 12 January 2018: Amelia Blake, 22, was killed whist travelling in Australia by her boyfriend, Brazil Gurung, 33, who also killed himself. Amelia was strangled and suffered blunt force trauma to her face and head. An inquest into her death ruled that the manner of death was ‘homicide during an episode of interpersonal violence’.
  8. 13 January 2018: Cassie Hayes, 28, was killed by Andrew Burke, 30, the ex-partner of her girlfriend. Cassie Hayes was attacked by Burke at her workplace; a travel agency in Southport town centre. As Cassie was assisting a family, Burke slit her throat. He was sentenced to 26 years for murder and possession of an offensive weapon in a public place.
  9. 15 January 2017: Natalie Hastings, 41, was run down in Queensway, Hemel Hempstead by Simon Whittle, 49. Reportedly they had been friends for 20 years and more recently, Whittle had started lodging with Natalie. Witnesses heard him shouting ‘you’re dead’ just before he run her over. Whittle is serving a minimum of 20 years in prison for her murder.
  10. 24 January 2017: Claire Harris, 44, was killed by her ex- partner Rickardo Wilson, 50, whom she had allowed to stay in the flat she rented whilst he looked for a new home. She had suffered 86 injuries – half of them to her head and face. Wilson was found guilty of manslaughter and sentenced to 15 years. Wilson had been violent and abusive towards Claire throughout their relationship.
  11. 26 January 2018: Cheryl Gabriel-Hooper, 51, was shot dead by her husband, Andrew Hooper, 45, as she sat in her car outside her home in Newport, Shropshire. She had recently separated from Hooper. At sentencing, the judge described the shooting, which took place in front of Cheryl’s 14-year-old daughter, as a ‘planned execution’. Andrew Hooper was sentenced to 31 years in prison for murder.
  12. 29 January 2018: Janet Scott, 51, was stabbed by her ex-boyfriend Simon Mellors, 56. She survived the attack but he ran her over and killed her as she tried to flee. Mellors had killed a former partner, Pearl Black in 1999, and killed Janet whilst on licence. Before the killing, Mellors had made threats to kill Janet, and her husband, Chris Scott. He committed suicide whilst on remand for Janet’s murder.
  13. 29 January 2018: Agnieszka Swierczynska-Jaros, 37, died of multiple organ failure in a house fire in Trowbridge that had been started deliberately. Three men were arrested on suspicion of arson with the intent to cause harm but were released due to lack of evidence. In her inquest the coroner said that he believed witnesses had been untruthful and was convinced that the fire was a deliberate act because there were two start points and traces of fuel throughout the house.
  14. 29 January 2018: Paula Harris, 44, was strangled to death by her partner Michael Foster, 39 at their home, in Mansfield, Nottingham. A review into the killing found that Foster had been violent and abusive towards women, and that he had strangled another woman with whom he had had an intimate relationship. He was sentenced to at least 16 years in prison for Paula’s murder.
  15. 29 January 2018: Kate Jaworski Green, 33, suffered significant injuries when Jordan Howlett, 24, deliberately drove his car headlong collision along a country road in Wakefield on 27th January 2018. Howlett claimed he was trying to kill himself. Charged with murder, the court later accepted a plea of guilty to manslaughter. He was sentenced to 10 and a half years, half of which must be served in custody.
  16. 6 February 2018: Ruksana Begum, 47, was stabbed by her son-in-law, Muhammed Tafham, 30 at her home in Rochdale. Ruksana had been assisting her daughter, who had been subjected to a long history of domestic violence by Tafham, to end their arranged marriage. At trial, Tafham claimed that Ruksana had stabbed herself. She had suffered three major stab wounds to the front of her body and one of them passed right through her heart. The jury rejected Tafham’s claims and found him guilty of murder.
  17. 10 February 2018: Samantha Archer, 43, was injected with heroin by her boyfriend Andrew Williams, at her home in Hartlepool. He has been found guilty of manslaughter. Williams claims that she consented but also told officers he had pushed Ms Archer onto a settee “to calm her down” and that he had given her more than usual.
  18. 13 February 2018: Saeeda Hussain, 54, was killed by her husband, Muhammed Javed, 58, at their home in Ilford, East London. After subjecting Saeeda to years of coercive and abusive behaviour, Javid attacked Saeeda with a machete and a hammer. He was sentenced to a minimum of 20 years for murder.
  19. 13 February 2018: Danielle Richardson, 24, was stabbed 15 times in her face, neck and back by her boyfriend Michael Marler, 37. Danielle’s body was found in a flat, in Manchester, after Marler jumped out of the window. He is serving 21 years for murder.
  20. 16 February 2018: Sarbjit Kaur, 38, was found dead at home in Wolverhampton after what was set up to look like a botched robbery. She had been asphyxiated. Her husband Gurpreet Singh, 42, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 19 years.
  21. 17 February 2018: Jill Sadler, 58, was smothered as she slept by her husband David Sadler, 61. He inflicted 50 injuries to her face, neck and abdomen during the attack. David Sadler, of Liverpool, was sentenced to seven years for manslaughter.
  22. 18 February 2018: Heather Jordan, 34, was strangled by Martin Corns, 52. Corns was a colleague who had been harassing and stalking Heather for some time. She had told him that she did not want a relationship with him. Corns killed Heather when she was walking to her place of work in Priorswood, Taunton.
  23. 21 February 2018: Lynn McNally, 46, died of multiple stab wounds inflicted by her partner Paul Beddoes, 44, at their home in Telford. She had been stabbed 17 times with two knives. Beddoes is serving 14 years and 190 days for murder.
  24. 22 February 2018: Charlotte Teeling, 33, was last seen alive and was reported missing four days later. She was found dead on 2 March in a flat in Birmingham. She had been strangled by Richard Bailey, 40, who had 171 prior convictions, including a string of violent offences against women.
  25. 25 February 2018: Mary Ragoobeer, 46, her two sons and two other women were killed in an explosion in a shop below the Ragoobeer’s flat in Leicester. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering five people.
  26. 25 February 2018: Leah Reek, 18, and four others were killed in an explosion which destroyed a shop and the flat above it. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering five people.
  27. 25 February 2018: Viktoria Ljevleva, 22, and four others were killed in an explosion which destroyed a shop and the flat above it. Arkan Ali, 37, Hawkar Hassan, 32, and Aram Kurd, 33, have been found guilty of murdering five people.
  28. 27 February 2018: Denise also know as Crystal Gossett, 45, and her daughter Diane, 19 (below), son Edward, 16 and Diane’s young granddaughter, were killed in house fire in Co Fermanagh. Daniel Allen, 27, has been charged with four counts of murder and one count of arson with intent to cause danger to life. As of December 2021, Allen is still awaiting trial.
  29. 27 February 2018: Sabrina also known as Elektra Gossett, 19, her daughter, mother (above) and brother, were killed in a house fire. Daniel Allen, 27, has been charged with four counts of murder and one count of arson with intent to cause danger to life. As of December 2021, Allen is still awaiting trial.
  30. 27 February 2018: Laura Huteson, 21, was stabbed in the throat by Jason Gaskell, 23, at his home in Hull. Previous partners of Gaskell said that he had a history of violent sadomasochist sex. He was sentenced to six years for manslaughter by gross negligence.
  31. 28 February 2018: Anne James, 74, was stabbed more than 30 times in her head and back by her grandson, Gregory Irvin, 26, who also slit her throat in the attack. Anne was attacked in her home in Bilston, West Midlands. Irvin, who had a history of violence and abuse against women, is serving 24 years for murder.
  32. February 2018: Julie Reilly, 47, was last seen alive on 6 February 2018. Her disappearance became a murder investigation as parts of her body were found close to her Glasgow home, in April. Andrew Wallace, 41, who had stabbed Caroline Parker, 51, to death in 1992, was found guilty of Julie’s murder. He is yet to reveal the location of Julie Reilly’s remains.
  33. 5 March 2018: Laura Cecilia Navarette De Figueria, 47, was found stabbed to death at her home in Twickenham shortly after the bodies of her husband Adelino Figueira de Farida, 57, and their two sons aged 7 and 10, were found at the bottom of cliffs. An inquest found that Adelino Figueira de Farida had unlawfully killed Laura, their sons and then himself.
  34. 5 March 2018: Angela Rider, 51, was strangled to death by her ex-husband, Adrian Rodi, 49, at her home in Cawood, North Yorkshire. A review into the killing revealed that Rodi had subjected Angela to violence and abuse throughout their relationship and that he had strangled her on multiple occasions.
  35. 6 March 2018: Fiona Scourfield, 54, was killed by her 17-year-old stepson Reuben Braithwaite at their home in Wales. Braithwaite battered her over the head with an axe and slit her throat with a Samuri sword before attempting to upload photos of her deceased body to the internet. The court heard that Braithwaite had considered attacking his father but thought that he would be “too powerful” and would fight back.
  36. 15 March 2018: Hope Barden, 20, died of asphyxiation during a sex-act on the internet paid for by Jerome Danger, 45. Danger was a regular online sex forum user preoccupied with strangulation, stabbing, torture and death. He was due to be questioned in relation to Hope’s death whilst serving a 14-month prison sentence for possession of pornography consisting of “the worst images it is possible to image” when he was found dead.
  37. 17 March 2018: Jennifer Rogers, 56, was stabbed to death by her terminally ill husband, Peter Rogers, 61, at a holiday let in Cornwall. It was claimed that the couple had agreed to end their lives. Peter Rogers was sentenced to two and half years in prison.
  38. 16 March 2018: Michelle Savage, 32, and her mum Heather Whitbread, 53, were shot dead by Michelle’s ex-husband Paul Savage,35, at their home in East Sussex. Paul Savage was violent, controlling and abusive towards Michelle throughout their nine-year relationship. Michelle had told friends that she believed he wanted to kill her.
  39. 16 March 2018: Heather Whitbread, 53, and her daughter Michelle Savage, 32, were shot dead by Michelle’s ex-husband Paul Savage, 35. Savage is serving 38 years for double murder.
  40. 21 March 2018: Diane Jones, 62, was hit at least eight times with a claw hammer by her son Wayne Beer, 42, at their home in Castleford, West Yorkshire. Her skull was fractured in several places.
  41. 30 March 2018: Jenny Cronin, 72, was doused in petrol and set alight by her ex-son-in-law Kieren Lynch, at her home in Essex. Lynch killed himself in the attack. Jenny’s daughter had made a number of calls to police regarding Lynch’s harassment, stalking and threats to kill. An inquest found that Jenny was unlawfully killed by Cronin.
  42. 30 March 2018: Leyla Mtumwa, 36, was strangled then stabbed at least 49 times in her head, neck, body and arms by her husband Kema Salum, 38, in front of her 12-year-old son at their north London home. Salum had been extremely violent to a previous partner. Sentencing Salum to 23 years for murder, the judge described him as an ‘arrogant, controlling bully’.
  43. 31 March 2018: Ourania Lambrou, 80, died after being pushed to the ground by Harry Goodwin-Sim, 29, at a bus stop in Camden, north London. She hit her head and died of a brain haemorrhage, which was caused by the assault. He pleaded guilty to manslaughter.
  44. 2 April 2018: Tanesha Melbourne, 17, died in her mother’s arms after having been shot in a drive-by shooting. No one has been charged in connection with her death.
  45. 6 April 2018: Tracy Stonehouse, 51, was battered repeatedly around the head, strangled and then stabbed six times by her husband Arthur Stonehouse, 73, at his home in Solihull. According to reports, he has been telling people he “would kill her”.
  46. 7 April 2018: Lesley Potter, 66, was beaten and strangled by her husband Derek Potter, 63, in their home in South Wales. He attempted to make her death look like suicide by hanging but later confessed to a colleague that he had killed her.
  47. 10 April 2018: Alexis Flynn, 42, died after having been stabbed to death, by her ex-partner, David Payne, 51, at her home in Ayrshire. He was also charged with punching her on the face and body, putting his hands round her neck and compressing in February this year. At the time of her death, Payne was banned by a court from approaching her.
  48. 12 April 2018: Viktorija Sokolova, 14, was raped and killed through blunt force trauma to her head in a park in Wolverhampton by Ayman Aziz, 16. She was found dead on a park bench a day after being reported missing. Aziz was convicted of rape and murder.
  49. 12 April 2018: Margaret Howlett, 63, was stabbed to death by her husband, David Pawluk, 59, at their home in Rochdale. Pawluk stabbed her repeatedly in the face and neck. Margaret confided in friends that Pawluk was controlling and had a gambling problem.
  50. 13 April 2018: Maryna Zhytnyk-Kavaliauske, 35, was strangled to death with a ligature at her home in Worthing. An inquest found that Alex Chernoff, 43, was ‘obsessed’ with Maryna and was increasingly abusive towards her. The coroner ruled that Chernoff had unlawfully killed Maryna and that he killed himself at the scene.
  51. 14 April 2018: Angela Craddock, 40, was beaten to death in her home in Warrington, by her ex-partner, William Smart, 54, who had just been released from prison for a previous assault he inflicted in her. She had over 100 injuries and was so badly injured she had to be identified by her fingerprints
  52. 15 April 2018: Natasha Hill, 18, died of a head injury. Her partner, Scott Clifford, 33, inflicted more than 100 injuries at her home in Chesire after kicking, punching, biting and stamping on her. He also attacked her with a guitar and stabbed her with a broken drum stick. Clifford was found guilty of her murder and a further two counts of actual bodily harm and one of common assault relating to incidents prior. He will serve 17 years and 165 days in prison.
  53. 15 April 2018: Samantha Clarke, 38, was stabbed to death her nephew Jordan Clarke, 21, at the family home in Brixton, London. Jordan Clarke was found guilty of manslaughter by diminished responsibility. He was detained in a secure hospital.
  54. 18 April 2018: Jennifer Morgan, 33, was stabbed to death. Her body was found in the garden of her home in Kirkintilloch, Her partner, Hugh Baird, 39, was charged with her murder and was due to stand trial a week before he was found dead in his cell with an apology to Jennifer’s family written on the wall. An inquiry ruled he had killed himself.
  55. 19 April 2018: Cecilia Seddon’s body was found concealed in a mattress in a property in Penzance, she had last been seen on 13 April. Clayton Hawkes, 52, with whom she was in a casual relationship, and Blaze Fisher, 25, were charged with perverting the course of justice. Hawkes was also charged with injecting her with a noxious substance (heroin and cocaine).  Her body was so badly decomposed when it was found that it was impossible to identify the cause of her death. She was 32.
  56. 20 April 2018: Julie Hunt, 47, was beaten to death by Florin Ion, 31, on her way to work at Lakeside Shopping Centre, in Essex. Witnesses said that Ion kicked Julie Hunt to death ‘like he was taking a free kick’ and was repeatedly shouting words like ‘hate’ and ‘why did you leave me’. There was no relationship between Julie Hunt and Florin Ion. He was sentenced to life for murder.
  57. 21 April 2018: Betty Lyons, 85, was strangled by her husband George Lyons, 88, at their home in Rochester. He then killed himself. Betty’s death was recorded as unlawful killing.
  58. 22 April 2018: Hollie Kerrell, 28, was reported missing and later found dead, buried in a shallow grave. Her husband of 5 years from who she had recently separated, Christopher Kerrell, 35, used a hammer to batter the right side of her head before strangling her at her home in Dyfed, Wales.
  59. 26 April 2018: Elizabeth Lacey, 63, was stabbed to death. Her son, Christopher Lacey, 21, who pleaded guilty to manslaughter by diminished responsibility, has been detained under the Mental Health Act in relation to her death. Edwina Holden, a carer for Elizabeth’s 94-year-old mother was also stabbed 12 times and survived the attack.
  60. 26 April 2018: Joleen Corr was beaten and thrown down the stairs at her home in Northern Ireland, by her boyfriend Michael O’Connor, 23, in December 2016. She was left brain damaged and in severe pain, requiring 24-hour care. She died, aged 27, after a landmark court ruling that she should no longer be kept alive. O’Connor is serving a life sentence for murder.
  61. 27 April 2018: Fiona Fisher, 51, was stabbed by her son Thomas Fisher, 22, at her home in East Sussex. Thomas Fisher admitted manslaughter by diminished responsibility.
  62. 28 April 2018: Faye Caliman, 30, was stabbed 12 times by her husband Marian Caliman, 32, in her face, neck, stomach, heart and back at her home in Nottinghamshire. He filmed himself slapping and shouting abuse at her before he killed her.
  63. 30 April 2018: Nicola Roberts, 44, was bludgeoned unconscious by her ex-husband Neil Barass, 45, before he stabbed her to death and then killed himself at his home in Leicestershire. An inquest found that Nicola was unlawfully killed by Barrass.
  64. 2018: Mihrican Mustafa, 38, was found dead in East London on 26 April 2019, she had been reported missing by her family in May 2018. Her body was found alongside the body of Henriett Szus, believed to have been killed in 2016, in a freezer in Canning Town, East London. Mihrican had been beaten and strangled. Zahid Younis, 35, is serving 38 years for double murder.
  65. 13 May 2018: Onees Khatoon, 71, was strangled by her son, Majid Butt, 51, in her home in West London. Butt received a life sentence for murder.
  66. 13 May 2020: Sarah Clayton, 21, was found dead in a tent on a campsite in East Sussex. She had been strangled to death. Her fiancé Christopher Cole, 30, whom she had been seeing since February and who had a history of violence and abuse against women, was found guilty of murder.
  67. 14 May 2018: Jessica Patel, 34, was injected with insulin and strangled with a carrier bag by her husband, Mitesh Patel, 37, at their home in Middlesbrough. A review into the killing found that Mitesh Patel was controlling and abusive to Jessica throughout their marriage. He had planned to claim a two million pounds life insurance pay-out after the murder.
  68. 15 May 2018: Rosina Coleman, 85, was killed in her own home in Romford, Essex by blunt force trauma to her head and neck inflicted with a hammer by ‘handyman’ Paul Prause, 65, whom she had paid previously to complete odd jobs. Prause had racked up significant debt through gambling and stole jewellery worth £7000 from Rosina. He was sentenced to 22 years in prison.
  69. 18 May 2018: Bernadette Green, 88, was found dead. Her death was not initially thought to be suspicious, but after post mortem tests, her son John Green, 65, was charged and later convicted of her murder. John Green smothered Bernadette to death at their home in Lancashire. Her body also indicated signs of ‘severe neglect’.
  70. 20 May 2018: Sophie Cavanagh, 31, was found dead. Her estranged husband, Martin Cavanagh, 35, strangled Sophie at his flat in Bromley, south-east London. At trial, he was described as a ‘jealous and controlling man’. He was sentences to a minimum term of 16 years for Sophie’s murder.
  71. 20 May 2018: Angela Conoby, 54, stabbed to death by her partner of more than 30 years, Peter Stagis, 60, at their home in Leeds. He was sentenced to 14 years for murder.
  72. 25 May 2018: Christina Abbotts, 29, was found bludgeoned to death in her bed after failing to turn up at celebrations planned for her birthday. Zahid Naseem, 47, has been found guilty of her murder.
  73. 28 May 2018: Laura Mortimer, 31, and her 11-year-old daughter Ella Dalby, were stabbed to death by Christopher Boon, an ex-partner of Laura, at their home in Gloucestershire. Police said Boon had a history of violence and in 2010 he was handed a suspended sentence for attacking a former partner and her mother. He was sentenced to 29 years for double murder.
  74. 29 May 2018: Denise Rosser, 38, was found dead at home where she had been beaten to death, suffering catastrophic injuries. She had recently told friends that she was frightened to go home. Her partner, Simon Winston, 49, was convicted of her murder. Denise was repeatedly assessed as at ‘high risk’ of violence and abuse from Winston in the years preceding her death.
  75. 29 May 2018: Joanne Bishop, 39, died in hospital four days after her partner Shane Clarke, 52, stabbed her 29 times with a screwdriver, at their home in Milton Keynes. Clarke was jailed for a minimum term of 20 years for her murder.
  76. 31 May 2018: Jill Hibberd, 71, was stabbed 70 times at her home in Barnsley, during a burglary. Lee Fueleop, 40, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 35 years.
  77. In May 2018, Mary Gregory, 94, died in hospital due to smoke inhalation after a fire at her home in Lancashire. In November 2021, her son’s stepson, Tiernan Danton, 21, was found guilty of her murder. He disabled the fire alarm, impeded her exit and started the fire.
  78. 1 June 2018: Andra Hilitanu, 28, suffered 80 sharp and blunt injuries, including a fatal neck wound, at her home in Neasden, north-west London. Her unborn child also died in the attack. Her boyfriend, Ioan Campeanu, 43, was convicted of murder and child destruction.
  79. 6 June 2018: Zofija Kaczan, 100, died in hospital after having her neck and cheek broken in a robbery at her home in Derby. Arthur Waszkiewicz, 39, was convicted of manslaughter and robbery.
  80. 8 June 2018: Tina Cantello, 49, was reported missing after she failed to turn up for work. She was found dead the next day with multiple stab wounds. Geoffrey Hutton, 38, had killed Tina, who was working as a debt collector, when she arrived at his home in Basildon, Essex, to collect a payment. Hutton was convicted of her murder.
  81. 9 June 2018: Marie Gibson, 35, was found dead at her home in Louth, Lincolnshire. Her boyfriend of two months, Shane Murphy, 27, beat her to death with a baseball bat and stabbed her in the throat with broken glass. He was sentenced to 20 years for her murder.
  82. 12 June 2018: Tracy Patsalides, 40, was found dead with head and neck injuries in a seafront shelter in Eastbourne. Wayne Marshall, 38, was convicted of her murder and sentenced to 14 years.
  83. 23 June 2018: Gita Suri, 56, was stabbed to death by another resident, Gary Davis, 50, at the supported housing they shared in Greenwich, London. Davis was found guilty of murder.
  84. 30 June 2018: Klarissa-Charlene Faith, 26, was found dead by police who had been called to her home in Harworth, Nottinghamshire. She had been strangled to death. Her partner, Stuart Hall, 47, was convicted of her murder.
  85. July 2018: Anne Reid, 81, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Susan Reid below. The murder charge was later deleted, Knox was convicted of assault and was given a community service order. Knox was also found to have attacked another woman, Agnes Ferguson, 81, poking and prodding her ribs causing her to scream in pain.
  86. July 2018: Susan Reid, 73, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Anne Reid above. The murder charges were found ‘not proven’.
  87. 1 July 2018: Shuren Ma, 72, was found with a critical head injury and died at the scene by police who had been called to a disturbance. Her partner, Zhizhang Shan, 74, attacked Shuren in their home in Woolwich, by striking her repeatedly over the head with a rolling pin and by stabbing her repeatedly in the chest and abdomen. Shan pleaded guilty to manslaughter by diminished responsibility.
  88. 4 July 2018: Judy Constant, 62, was found at a property in Marlborough Road, Islington. A post-mortem found she had suffered blunt force trauma. Her son, Darren Constant, 37, was arrested in July 2018 and released under investigation. In March 2021 he was charged with murder. He was remanded in custody and awaits trial.
  89. 6 July 2018: Samantha Toms, 47, was found dead at home in East Sussex. She had been smothered. Her partner Ralph Fairman, 50, was convicted of manslaughter by diminished responsibility and sentenced to a minimum of nine years.
  90. 7 July 2018: Lorna Myers, 54, was stabbed to death by her son, Malo Myers, 32, who was found guilty of manslaughter. Her 14-year-old son, who was also stabbed, survived the attack.
  91. 8 July 2018: Stela Marisabel Domador-Kuzma, 34, was stabbed to death by her housemate Ryan Thornton, 20, at the home they shared in Bournemouth. Thornton, who has also admitted charges of possessing indecent images of children, pleaded guilty to murder.
  92. 8 July 2018: Patricia Franks, 86, was killed through blunt force trauma and strangulation by her husband Lawrence Franks, 84, at their home in Stockport. He pleaded guilty to manslaughter by diminished responsibility.
  93. 8 July 2018: Dawn Sturgess, 44, was killed after applying the nerve agent novichok which had been discarded in a counterfeit perfume bottle. The UK Government believe it was the same military-grade substance used in an attack on a former Russian spy and are said the hold the Russian state responsible.
  94. 10 July 2018: Gina Ingles, 34, and her 4-year-old son, Milo, 4, died of smoke inhalation after a fire in their home in East Sussex. Her partner, 26, was injured and survived the fire. Jacob Barnard,32, and Andrew Milne,42, were found guilty of two counts of murder and one count of attempted murder.
  95. 10 July 2018: Joyce Burgess, 84, died of a heart attack in hospital 3 days after being assaulted by Johnny Brazil, 27, when he burgled her home in Surrey. He caused significant injuries to her arms, face and chest and admitted manslaughter in June 2019.
  96. 12 July 2018: Riasat Bi, 86, died of multiple stab wounds after she was attacked by Madni Ahmed, 20, in her home in Birmingham. Her 18-year-old grandson was also stabbed and survived the attack. Ahmed was convicted of murder, attempted murder, possession of an offensive weapon and affray. He was sentenced to 36 years.
  97. 12 July 2018: Katerina Makunova, 17, was killed during an argument with her ex-boyfriend, Oluwaseyi Dada, 21. Dada had a history of coercive and controlling behaviour towards Katerina and police had been involved on numerous occasions. Katerina died when she ‘fell’ onto a kitchen knife that was in her handbag. Dada was sentenced to two years and three months for manslaughter.
  98. 16 July 2018: Claire Wright, 38, was tied up and gagged by her partner Warren Coulton, 51, at a campsite in Wales. She died of asphyxiation in a supposed ‘sex-game gone wrong’. Coulton fled the scene, leaving Claire’s body to be found by cleaning and maintenance staff. He was found guilty of manslaughter by gross negligence and sentenced to six years imprisonment.
  99. 19 July 2018: Lesley Davies, 81, died in hospital after being attacked in the street outside her home in Cornwall. She was pushed to the ground and stamped on by her partner, Brian Downie, 69. He was given an indefinite hospital order.
  100. 24 July 2018: Sheila Thomas, 69, was found dead with stab wounds at her home in South London. She had been bludgeoned with a piece of wood and stabbed by her husband, David Thomas, 73, at their home in Herne Hill, South London. Sheila had suffered years of abuse at the hands of David Thomas and she had told him she wanted to separate. He was convicted of murder.
  101. 26 July 2018: Lucy McHugh, 13, was found stabbed to death in woodland in Southampton. Stephen-Alan Nicholson, 24, was found guilty of three counts of rape and of Lucy’s murder. The trial heard that Nicholson murdered Lucy to prevent her exposing him as an abuser.
  102. 29 July 2018: Stephanie (aka Stevie) Packman 64, was killed by her husband Michael Packman, 66, at their home in Sittingbourne. He cut her throat and then tried to kill himself. He was given a 2-year suspended sentence.
  103. July 2018: Anne Reid, 81, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Susan Reid below. Knox is also facing charges in relation to other patients.
  104. July 2018: Susan Reid, 73, died after care-work Calum Knox syringed ‘liquid’ in to her mouth. Knox had been charged with attempted murder and neglect in relation to her death and Anne Reid above. Knox is also facing charges in relation to other patients.
  1. 27 July 2018: Sam Eastwood, 28, was found dead in a shallow grave in Staffordshire eight days after being strangled by her partner Michael Stirling, 32. Stirling was given a life sentence for murder.
  2. 2 August 2018: Karen Peter, 50, was found dead after a house fire in Dagenham, East London. Her husband, Thomas Peter, 50, strangled Karen and then set alight to her body in a locked bedroom. Thomas Peter subjected Karen to violence and abuse throughout the marriage. He was found guilty of murder and arson with intent to endanger life.
  3. 3 August 2018: Kelly Franklin, 29, was stabbed to death in the street in what police have described as a ‘targeted attack’. Her ex-partner, Torbjorn (Ian) Kettlewell, 30, was convicted of murder and jailed for 29 years. His partner, Julie Wass, was convicted of manslaughter.
  4. 6 August 2018: Katherine (Katie) Kemp, 31, was found stabbed to death after her husband Thomas Kemp, 32, jumped out of a window. Thomas Kemp had stabbed Katherine 28 times at the flat they shared in Ipswich.
  5. 6 August 2018: Tracey Evans, 52, was found dead in her flat in Leicestershire. Her partner, Jeremy Clarke, 54, had slit her throat from ‘ear-to-ear’. Clarke had subjected Tracey to physical, emotional and financial abuse throughout the relationship. He was sentenced to 22 years in prison for murder.
  6. 7 August 2018: Marie Walker, 61, was found dead by the police in her home Edinburgh after neighbours raised concerns. She was strangled to death by her partner Robert Douglas, 62. Douglas was convicted of her murder and must serve at least 16 years in prison.
  1. 15 August 2018: Simonne Kerr, 31, was stabbed 70 times by Desmond Sylva, 40, at his flat in Clapham, south London. Sylva, who has a history of violence and abuse against women, must serve a minimum of 21 years after he was convicted of murder.
  2. 15 August 2018: Barbara Davison, 66, was found dead at her home in Redcar. She had been strangled by her partner Paul Plunkett, 61. In 1995, Plunket served a three-year sentence for strangling his partner, Jackie Aspery, to death. He was sentenced to a minimum of 23 years Barbara’s murder.
  3. 22 August 2018: Carole Harrison, 73, was found dead after a fire at her house in South West London. Though cause of death could not be established, there was evidence that Carole had been assaulted. William Kydd, 54, who was known to the victim, was convicted of murder and sentenced to a minimum tariff of 30 years in prison.
  4. 26 August 2018: Sharon Perrett, 37, was found dead at her home in Dorset. A post-mortem revealed she had sustained multiple impact injuries to her head, neck, chest and limbs. She had 15 fractured ribs and more than 80 area of external bruising and abrasions. Her partner Daniel O’Malley-Keyes, 30, is serving an 18-year sentence for murder.
  5. 27 August 2018: Raneem Oudeh, 22, was stabbed to death along with her mother, Khaola Saleem, 49, outside Khaola’s home in Solihull. Janbaz Tarin, 21, was sentenced to a minimum of 32 years double-murder. Raneem had been trying to end her relationship with Tarin since April that year.
  6. 27 August 2018: Khaola Saleem, 22, was stabbed to death along with her daughter, Raneem Oudeh, 22, outside her home in Solihull. Janbaz Tarin, 21, was sentenced to a minimum of 32 years double-murder. Raneem had been trying to end her relationship with Tarin since April that year.
  7. August 2018: Eileen Baxter, 75, died of multiple organ failure following the puncture of her bowl caused by a vaginal mesh implant. The insufficiently tested and poorly regulated plastic mesh devices have been called the greatest health scandal since Thalidomide. Eileen was not killed by a violent man. Women’s pain is routinely ignored and minimised and this dangerous surgery is facing increased scrutiny.
  8. 28 August 2018: Lisa Butler, 48, was stabbed to death by her uncle Richard Butler, 66, at a caravan park in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire.  Butler killed himself at the scene.
  9. 29 August 2018: Laura Harrison, 36, was beaten, strangled, and stabbed once in the forehead and 17 times in the buttocks by her boyfriend Jonathon Robinson, 32, at his home in Middlesbrough. Robinson had been violent and abusive to Laura throughout the relationship. He was sentenced to 21 years for murder.
  10. 1 September 2018: Celia Levitt, 68, was stabbed with a kitting needle and strangled by her son, Barry Levitt, 36, at his home in Bromley, south London. He was given an indefinite hospital order for manslaughter by diminished responsibility.
  11. 2 September 2018: Julie Owens, 52, died in hospital 11 days after being seriously assaulted, by her son John Owens, 30, at her home in Liverpool. John Owens was sentenced to four and a half years for manslaughter.
  12. 5 September 2018: Joan Hoggett, 62, was stabbed multiple times whilst at work in a local shop in Fulwell, Sunderland. Ethan Mountain, 19, pleaded guilty to manslaughter by diminished responsibility.
  13. 6 September 2018: Memunatu Warne, 43, died of smoke inhalation after a masked man riding a moped threw a petrol bomb through a window of the home of a relative whom she was visiting in Woolwich, south-east London. William Smith, 26, and Elliot Robinson, 22, were found guilty of murder and were sentenced to 32 years and 31 years respectively.
  14. 6 September 2018: Kylie Dembrey, 28, died following an attack at her home in Berkshire in which she was strangled and then stabbed by her partner Mark Sinclair, 30. Sinclair was violent and abusive towards Kylie throughout their 12-year relationship and has at least five previous convictions related to domestic violence. He was convicted of murder.
  15. 9 September 2018: Susan Gyde, 52, was found by police when they were called to attend to a serious assault at the home she shared with her husband, Philip Gyde, 58, in Burton, Staffordshire. She was pronounced dead later in hospital. She had been strangled by Philip Gyde, who was convicted of her murder.
  16. 11 September 2018: Yvonne Robinson, 60, died at her home in Cumbria. A post mortem revealed that the cause of her death was blunt chest trauma. She had 15 rib fractures and was suffering from neglect. Her partner, Colin Sharples was arrested after her death but died before the post mortem was produced. Assistant coroner Dr Nicholas Shaw said had he not died ‘I have no doubt he would have been arrested and prosecuted in relation to Yvonne’s death and he might well have been charged with her murder.’ There was a history of him abusing her.
  17. 20 September 2018: Kay Richardson, 49, was killed at her home in Sunderland by her husband Alan Martin, 53, who then killed himself. Martin, who had been questioned by police on suspicion of rape in the days before the killing, repeatedly hit Kay Richardson over the head with a hammer before strangling her with an electric cable. Kay had repeatedly reported Martin to the police and he had been served with an injunction one day before he killed her.
  18. 21 September 2018: Cristina Magda-Calancea, 26, was stabbed to death, Norfolk, at her home in Kings Lynn. Her ex-partner, Gediminas Jasinskas, 29, hid in Cristina’s garage as he waited for her to finish work, before stabbing her 25 times. Jasinskas was convicted of murder and sentenced to a minimum of 20 years.
  19. 21 September 2018: Frances Hubbard, 81, was killed after her husband, Michael Hubbard, 81, repeatedly stabbed her in the head with two kitchen knives, at their home in Norfolk. A trial of facts hearing found that Michael Hubbard had caused her death and he was detained indefinitely under the Mental Health Act.
  20. 23 September 2018: Sandra Zmijan, 32, was found dead in Wojciech Tadewicz’s, 26, back garden in Hayes, west London. Tadewicz had repeatedly struck Sandra with a hammer a day after she told him they could ‘only ever be friends’. He was jailed for a minimum of 22 years for murder.
  21. 25 September 2018: Margaret Harris, 78, and her daughter Sharon Harris, 55, were stabbed to death by their neighbour, Jack Ralph, 28, at their home in Hadlow, Kent. Margaret’s husband was also stabbed in the attack and survived. Ralph was found guilty of two counts of manslaughter by diminished responsibility and one of attempted murder.
  22. 25 September 2018: Sharon Harris, 55, and her mother Margaret Harris, 78, were stabbed to death by their neighbour, Jack Ralph, 28, at their home in Hadlow, Kent. Her father, David Harris, survived the attack with serious injuries.
  23. 26 September 2018: Jeanna Maher, 51, was bound with a ligature at her wrists and ankles and repeatedly hit on the head and a body with an unknown implement at a house in Drumchapel, Glasgow. Her husband Peter Maher, 57 at the time of her death, was initially found unfit to plea and was detained in a secure hospital. He has since been charged with Jeanna Maher’s murder and is awaiting a criminal trial.
  24. 30 September 2018: Glenda Jackson, 44, was beaten and stabbed to death by her neighbours, Nicholas Curtis, 32, and Stuart Curtis, 31, on the street outside her home in Merseyside. Previously, Glenda had reported to police that she had been subject to homophobic abuse perpetrated by a group the men were connected to. The brothers were found guilty of murder.
  25. 1 October 2018: Avan Najmadeen, 32, was stabbed 50 times by her husband, Dana Abdullah, 35, at her home in Stoke-on-Trent. The court heard that Avan had moved several times because she did not want Abdullah to know where she was living. He was convicted of murder and sentenced to a minimum term of 18 years and eight months.
  26. 8 October 2018: Natalie Saunders, 33, was found dead at her home in Cleveland. There were 85 separate sites of injury on her body – with a minimum of three blows found to her face, 13 to her head and neck, 23 to her torso, and 25 to her lower limbs. Her boyfriend Stephen Charlton, 24, was found guilty of her murder.
  27. 9 October 2018: Sarah Wellgreen, 47, was last seen alive on 9 October 2018. Her former partner, Ben Lacomba, 38, was convicted of her murder. The trial heard that Lacomba killed and disposed of Sarah’s body after she sought to buy him out of the home they shared in Kent, despite having separated in 2014. Her body has never been found.
  28. 22 October 2018: Nazia Begum Ali, 25, was found dead at her home in Bow, east London. A trial heard that her husband, Mohammed Anhar Ali, 32, had waited inside a cupboard for up to 10 hours for her to return, before beating and strangling her to death. The judge described Anhar Ali as ‘manipulative and overbearing’ towards Nazia and that his conduct was fuelled by a failure to accept that she was ‘entitled to leave him, entitled to divorce him and entitled to live her own life’.
  29. 24 October 2018: Teresa Garner, 46, died of significant head injuries from severe blunt force trauma with a hammer at the home she shared with her husband, John Garner, in North Wales. John Garner, 51, was convicted of murder and sentenced to 22 years. Three women gave evidence at the trial and stated that Garner was violent and abusive during their relationships.
  30. 28 October 2018: Lynn Forde, 35, was found dead after her partner Phil Osborne, 36, called the police and told them that he had killed her before killing himself 30 miles away.
  31. 29 October 2018: Mavis Bran, 69, died in hospital of multiple organ failure after developing sepsis and hypothermia after suffering severe burns in the chip shop she owned with her husband in Carmarthenshire. Geoff Bran, 70, her husband, was charged with and later cleared of her murder though admitted that he continued to serve customers in the chip shop rather than seek medical assistance. Mavis had previously confided in a friend that he was abusive to her.
  32. 30 October 2018: Sheena Jackson, 58 was found dead in the home she shared with her husband, Alexander Jackson, 65, in Stirling. Police have confirmed that her death was murder. Her husband was found seriously unwell inside the property and died later. It is believed Alexander Jackson killed Sheena and then took his own life.
  33. 2 November 2018: Anne Marie Pomphret, 49, was found dead at the stables she owned in Warrington having suffered serious head injuries. Her husband David Pompthret, 50, was charged with her murder in April 2019 and found guilty in October 2019. He had battered her to death with a crowbar
  34. 3 November 2018: Renata Poncova, 33, was pushed out of an 8th floor window by her boyfriend Tony Taylor, 33, at the flat they shared in Southwark, south-London. Taylor then jumped from the window. An inquest found that Renata was unlawfully killed and Taylor died as a result of suicide.
  35. 6 November 2018: Fiona McDonald, 44, was stabbed 47 times by her neighbour, William Finlay, at her home in Falkirk. Finlay, 56, admitted murder and was sentenced to at least 17 years.
  36. 8 Nov 2018: Natalie Smith, 34, stabbed by her ex-partner, Craig Stewart, and was found at her home in Bristol with life threatening injuries. She died in hospital. Craig Stewart, 36, died at the scene from self-inflicted stab wounds.
  37. 12 November 2018: Katarzyna (Kasia) Paszek, 39, died in hospital with a blunt force head injury. An inquest heard that she had been subjected to domestic abuse and had been receiving help from the West Wales Domestic Abuse Service for a year prior to her death. Four men were initially arrested in relation to her death. The inquest was informed by police that there were “significant inconsistencies” in the statements surrounding the incident. which made it impossible to establish what happened or what caused her death. The coroner recorded a verdict of death by misadventure.
  38. 12 November 2018: Tasneem Sheikh was hit over the head five times with a vase at the home she shared with her husband, Naseer Khan, 66, in Wandsworth, south London. Khan was found guilty of manslaughter by diminished responsibility and given an indefinite hospital order.
  39. 12 November 2018: Sana Muhammad, 35, was shot in the stomach with a crossbow. She was pronounced dead by doctors, who were able to deliver the baby she was carrying. Her ex-husband, Ramanodge Unmathallegadoo, 50, hid in the shed in Sana’s garden, at her home in Ilford, armed with two crossbows, bolts, a knife, duct tape, cables ties and a hammer. He was convicted of murder and sentenced to a minimum of 33 years.
  40. 13 November 2018: Pauline Kilkenny, 59, was found dead at her home in County Fermanagh after concerns were raised when she didn’t turn up at work. Joseph Dolan, 28, who was lodging with Pauline at the time, stabbed her 28 times.
  41. 16 November 2018: Maureen Watkins, 75, died from multiple stab wounds by her son, Edward Watkins, 55, at their home in Peckham, south-east London. Watkins was detained indefinitely under the Mental Health Act.
  42. 16 November 2018: Valerie Kneale, 75, was in hospital in a stoke unit in Blackpool. She died of a haemorrhage caused by a ‘non-medical related internal injury’. The post-mortem examination was one of a number carried out as part of an investigation into allegations of mistreatment and neglect on the hospital’s stroke unit. Investigating officers had received information about other allegations of serious sexual assaults against two patients, as well as the sexual assault of a healthcare professional working on the stroke unit.  A healthcare professional was arrested under suspicion of rape and murder in 2021.
  43. 17 November 2018: Jacqueline Allen, 65, died when her daughter’s home in Kent was set alight, shortly after warning the police that her daughter’s ex-partner was dangerous. Her daughter’s ex-partner, Simon Childs, 51, was found guilty of the murder of Jacqueline and attempted murder of her 12-year-old granddaughter.
  44. 24 November 2018: Samantha Gosney, 29, was stabbed to death in her home in Merseyside by her partner Adam Brettle, 23. The court heard that Brettle was ‘controlling and jealous’ and that he stabbed Samantha – who suffered 29 wounds in the attack – when she made plans to attend her grandmother’s funeral.
  45. 25 November 2018: Karen Cleary-Brown, 44, went missing in Jamaica. She was found dead on 3rd December.  Shelden Hewitt, 32, who was working on her property confessed to her murder.
  46. 27 November 2018: Lorraine Matos-Sanchez, 27, died of compression to her neck inflicted by her husband Jesus Matos-Sanchez, 31, at their home in Leicestershire. He then killed himself. A review into Lorraine’s killing found that she had previously text a friend stating she thought he was going to kill her.
  47. 28 November 2018: Kelly Worgan, 33, was strangled to death by her husband George Worgan, 35, at their home in Bristol. He was given a life sentence, to serve minimum term of 12 and a half years.
  48. 29 November 2018: Barbara Findlay, 58 was from Kennington, S. London but had lived in Jamaica for the last 5 years. She was reported missing on 29 November. She was found dead on 5 December.
  49. 1 December 2018: Grace Millane, 22, was from Essex. She went missing on 1st December whilst travelling in New Zealand. She was found dead on 9 December.  Jesse Kempson, 28, was convicted of her murder. In the time since his conviction, Kempson was convicted of a further eight charges relating to violence against women, including using a knife against a woman.
  50. 4 December2018: Maureen Whale, 77, collapsed on the phone when calling the police while her house was being burgled by two males. Post-mortem tests found she died from coronary heart disease brought on by the stress of the incident. The men have not been found.
  51. 5 December 2018: Sally Cavender, 55, was taken to hospital critically injured but died shortly after. Sally was strangled and beaten by her partner, Robert Simpson-Scott, in his home in Cambridge. He was found guilty of her murder.
  52. 10 December 2018: June Knight, 79, died at a care home in Leigh-on-Sea, Essex. Her son, Robert Knight, 52, threw her from a first-floor balcony causing ‘catastrophic’ head injuries. Knight was convicted of manslaughter and given a suspended sentence.
  53. 13 December 2018, Keely McGrath, 30, was beaten and stabbed to death by her partner, Anthony Davis, at their home in Derbyshire. Davis, 39, was convicted of murder and must serve at least 24 years in prison.
  54. 14 December 2018: Poppy Devey-Waterhouse, 24, sustained more than 100 injuries when her ex-boyfriend, Joe Atkinson, 25, attacked her with a knife at their home in Yorkshire. Poppy suffered 70 knife injuries. The court heard that Atkinson failed to accept the relationship was over. He was convicted of murder.
  55. 17 December 2018: Sheila Small, 73, was beaten to death with a rolling pin and walking stick by her husband Edward Small, 76 at their home in Bradford. Prosecutor David Brooke QC said she had wounds to the top of her head that had split the skin to the skull. She had up to 26 separate injuries to her face, extensive bruising to her body and all four limbs, a shattered shoulder blade, a broken collar bone and fractured ribs. Her right arm was “absolutely covered in bruises” and the index finger was broken.
  56. 19 December 2018: Lana-Jayne Owen, 46, was strangled to death in her home in Rhondda Cynon Taff. Her partner Philip Andrews, 51, was charged with her murder and died of a terminal illness before facing trial. It is believed he strangled Lana with a length of cord. The coroner recorded a conclusion of unlawful killing.
  57. 22 December 2018: Marissa Aldrich, 29, was drowned in a balancing pond in Cambridgeshire, by her boyfriend Robert McWhir, 25. McWhir had a history of coercive and controlling behaviour. Just before the attack he had been accusing Marissa of seeing other men.
  58. 22 December 2018: Joanne Gallacher, 33, was stabbed 57 times by her partner, James Kennedy, 31, at his home in Lanarkshire.
  59. 23 December 2018: Carole Forth, 56, was strangled to death by her partner, Edward Scott, 62, at their home in Hull. He was found guilty of manslaughter.
  60. 25 December 2018: Parwin Quriashi, 19, was found with serious injuries caused by multiple stab wounds. She had been stabbed 38 times by her husband, Mohammad Qureshi, 27, at their home in Kent. He was sentenced to 16 years for murder.
  61. 26 December 2018: Angela Mittal, 41 was stabbed 59 times by her husband, Laurens Brand, 47, shortly after speaking to a solicitor about divorce. In a recording of a 999-call played to court, Brand said: ‘She was going to leave me… I couldn’t let that happen’.
  62. 26 December 2018: Alena Grlakova, 38, was found dead, naked in stream, in Rotherham, in April 2019 after having last been seen alive on boxing day 2018. She had been strangled and her body was covered In grit and stone. Gary Allen, 47, was found guilty of her murder.
  63. 26 December 2018: Joy Morgan, 21 was last seen alive at a church celebration in London. Joy’s body was found months later in Hertfordshire woodland. The cause of death could not be established but it is thought she may have been given drugs without her knowledge. An acquaintance, Ajibola Shogbamimu, 40, was found guilty of her murder.
  64. 30 December 2018: June Jones, 33, also known as Katie, was found dead at her home in West Bromwich after being reported missing on 26 December. She was found in the bath and wrapped in a rug with a knife placed on top of her body. It is believed she had been killed around 10th Her ex-boyfriend, Michael Foran, 32, is serving a life sentence for murder.
  65. 30 December 2018: Linda Jane McArity, 50, was found strangled in her home. Ian Kerr, 36, was found guilty of her murder.

Intimate Partner and Domestic Violence Homicides*: Sex Differences April 2012 – March 2015 (3 years)

Domestic Homicide or Intimate Partner Homicide?

The ONS defines domestic homicide as including the following: spouse, cohabiting partner, boyfriends/girlfriend, ex-spouse/ex-co-habiting partner, ex-boyfriend/girlfriend, adulterous relationship, lover’s spouse and emotional-rival as well as son/daughter, parent (including step and adopted relationships), which is broader than the generally understood partner or ex-partner to more closely align with the government definition of domestic violence.

Intimate partner homicides are a subset of this and are committed by cohabiting partner, boyfriends/girlfriend, ex-spouse/ex-co-habiting partner, ex-boyfriend/girlfriend, adulterous relationship, lover’s spouse and/or emotional-rival.

Domestic Violence – Who gets killed?

DV who.JPG

More women than men are killed in the context of ‘domestic homicide’, 315 women in 3 years compared to 117 men. Women were 73% of all victims of domestic violence homicide, men were 27% of all victims of domestic violence homicide.

Domestic Violence – Who gets killed by whom?

DV who by whom

Women killed in the context of ‘domestic  homicide’ are more likely than men to be killed by members of the opposite sex: Of the 315 female victims of ‘domestic  homicide’, 304 (97%) were killed by men. Of the 117 male victims of ‘domestic homicide’, 37 (32%) were killed by women

Domestic Violence -Who kills?

DV who kills

Intimate Partner Violence – Who gets killed?

IPV who

More women than men are killed by a partner/ex-partner, 243 women in 3 years compared to 60 men. Women were 80% of all victims of intimate partner homicide (243/303), men were 20% of all victims of intimate partner homicide (60/303)

Intimate Partner Violence – Who kills?

IPV who kills.JPG

Intimate Partner Violence – Who gets killed by whom?

IPV who by whom.JPG

Men killed by current or ex-intimate partners  are more likely than women to have been killed by someone of the same sex. Of the 60 male victims of intimate partner homicide, 27 (45%) were killed by men, 33 (55%) were killed by women. Of the 243 female victims of intimate partner homicide, 2 (1%) were killed by women, 241 (99%) were killed by men.

Of those killed in the context of intimate partner homicide by someone of the opposite sex, women were 88% (241/274) of victims, men were 12% (33/274), i.e. women are more than 7 times more likely to be  killed by a man, than men are by a women in the context of intimate partner homicide.


*Homicide  –   In England and Wales homicide is constituted of two offences: murder and manslaughter.  Murder is committed when a person (or persons) of sound mind unlawfully kills someone and had the intention to kill or cause grievous bodily harm.  There are three exceptions which can make a killing manslaughter rather than murder: that there was intent but a partial defence applies, that there was not intent but  there was gross negligence and risk of death, or thirdly, that there was no intent but conduct that was an unlawful act which involved danger and resulted in death. 
Data from Office for National Statistics (2016) Focus on Violence Crime and Sexual Offences. London. Office for National Statistics

Another Isolated Incident

23-year old Zaneta Balazova was found dead by her children on 2nd April 2015 in Benwell, Newcastle. Pavel Cina, 25, has been charged with her murder.

Newcastle City Councillor, Dipu Ahmed, commented:

 “People need to understand this is an isolated incident. Police reacted very quickly and made an arrest.”

“Let’s not raise tensions. We have to grieve for the person who is dead.”

“The people here have always been strong when things like this have happened in the past. No matter what community they are from we need to come together.”

Perhaps Dipu Ahmed would like to define what he means by isolated.

Zaneta Balazova is at least the 26th woman suspected to have been killed by a man in the UK in 2015.

Zaneta Balazova is at least the fifth woman suspected to have been killed by a man in Tyne and Wear in the last year.

Zaneta Balazova was part of a community called ‘women’. Women, my community, are being killed by men. Like Dipu Ahmed I want us to grieve for the woman who is dead. Unlike Dipu Ahmed, I believe that we need to raise tensions.  We need to be angry about yet another murder of one of our community. If members of any other ‘community’ than women, were being killed by members of another ‘community’, other than men, we would not be talking about isolated incidents.

Sex-differences and ‘domestic violence murders’*

*intimate partner homicides
What could we do if we wanted to hide the reality of men’s violence against women?

Firstly, we might have  a ‘gender neutral’ definition of domestic violence.  Maybe like the UK government which uses the following definition:

“any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality. The abuse can encompass, but is not limited to: psychological, physical, sexual, financial [and] emotional.”

Not only treating ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ as the same thing, this definition erases sex differences.  It includes the phrase ‘regardless of gender’ when in reality men – as a biological sex-class – are overwhelmingly the perpetrators, and women – as a biological sex-class – are overwhelming the victims of ‘domestic violence’ (more on the differences between male and female victims of intimate partner violence here).  It is also broad, including violence  and abuse committed between any family members.  Whilst this can be useful, for example allowing service provision to be made available for those experiencing violence and abuse from any  family member, sometimes it is important to focus on ‘intimate-partner violence’, including that committed by former intimate partners.

Secondly, we might present official data in a way that hides the extent of differences between women killed by men and men killed by women

The Office of National Statistics (ONS)  definition of partner/ex-partner homicide includes  killings by a “spouse, cohabiting partner, boyfriend/girlfriend, ex-spouse/ex-cohabiting partner/ex-boyfriend/girlfriend and adulterous relationship” but also “lover’s spouse and emotional rival”.  Data from the ONS found that in 2013/14, consistent with previous years, women were far more likely than men to be killed by partners or ex-partners than men.  84 women, around 53% of female homicide victims (over 16) had been killed by their current or a former partner, compared to 23 men (7% of male victims over 16).  So, we could say that government data tells us that one-in-five of those killed though ‘partner  violence’ is male.  Except this creates a false picture of what is really happening.

Combining data for the three years from 2011/12 to 2013/14, the ONS tell us that of 57 men killed in partner/ex-partner homicides, 21 of them, over a third, were killed by a man.  Of these 21 men killed by men in the context of partner/ex-partner homicides, 14 of them were killed by a lover’s spouse/love rival.  Of 249 women killed in partner/ex-partner homicides over the same 3 years, 247 were killed by a man, one by a woman (in one case the primary suspect is listed as unknown).  None of the female victims of partner/ex-partner homicide were killed by the spouse of their lover or an emotional rival. Similarly, no male victims of partner/ex-partner homicide were killed by a female spouse of their lover or a female emotional rival. Not only are men killed in the context of an intimate relationship less likely to be killed by their actual partner or ex-partner, they are much more likely than women to be killed by someone of the same sex.

sex differences and domestic violence snip

Another important difference between women and men killed in the context of intimate partner violence is the history of the relationship.  When men kill women partners or ex-partners, this usually follows months or years of them abusing her, when women kill male partners or ex-partners, it is usually after months or years of having been abused by the man they have killed. (Browne et al., 1998; Websdale, 1999; Dugan et al., 2003.)

So, there are four important differences when we compare women and men killed in the context of a current or previous intimate partnership (figures from the ONS 2011/12 to 2013/14 data):

  • Far fewer men than women are killed in the context of intimate partner violence (57 men in 3 years compared to 249 women)
  • Men are much more likely to be killed by the spouse of a partner or a love rival (14 out of 57 men, compared to none of the 249 women killed)
  • Men are much more likely than women to have been killed by someone of the same sex (21 of 57 male homicide victims were killed by a man, compared to one out or 249 women)
  • Men are more likely to have been killed by someone they were abusing, women are more likely to have been killed by someone they were being abused by.

Finally, we could look at ‘domestic violence’ or violence between current and former partners rather than male violence against women and girls

The government has a ‘strategy to end violence against women and girls’, whilst this pitifully fails to name ‘male violence’ it does at least acknowledge that the issue is broader than domestic violence and it does indicate that women and girls are disproportionately victimised.

If we look at men who kill women (who are not current or ex- intimate partners), it is clear that they have more in common with men who kill female current or former  partners, than the much smaller number of  women who kill male former partners. When men kill women, regardless of their relationship or lack of it, they are doing so in the context of a society in which men’s violence against women is entrenched and systemic. Sexual violence runs through the murders of women by men who are not partners or ex-partners. Gender, the social constructs of masculinity and femininity are also integral.

What could we do if we wanted to hide the reality of men’s violence against women?  We could ensure that our social and  political agenda setters of mainly men –  whose self-interest and privilege allowed them to consciously or unconsciously ignore, deny or dismiss the reality of men’s violence against women –  not only hid the reality of men’s violence against women but also created the illusion that they’re dealing with the problem.

A man suspected of being involved in Huddersfield’s worst-ever mass murder has been arrested in Pakistan: Erasing male violence against women and girls

Shahid Mohammed a  man suspected of being involved in Huddersfield’s worst-ever mass murder has been arrested in Pakistan, the  – so far local – news tells us.

Almost 13 years ago, In May 2002, 8 people1, spanning three generations of one family, were killed and three others escaped, after petrol was poured through the letter box of a house, in Birkby, Hudsdersfield.  The house had been destroyed by the time fire engines had arrived, just four minutes after neighbours had called them upon hearing the windows smash as petrol-bombs were thrown. The youngest killed was a six-month-old baby, the oldest 54.

News of the arrest of Shahid Mohammed immediately caught my attention. Like the killers and their victims, I’m from Huddersfield. I was living and working there for an organisation that ran women’s refuges at the time of the fire.

Three young men were arrested shortly after the incident.  The following year, Shaied Iqbal was convicted of eight counts of murder whilst Shakiel Shazad Amir, and Nazar Hussain were convicted of manslaughter. Shahid Mohammed had also been  arrested but ran away whilst on bail.

What I haven’t seen in the news reports is an analysis of sex.  All those charged in connection with the murders were male, as is Shahid Mohammed.  That seven of the eight victims were women or girls seems to have evaded anyone’s notice. Every report has included the names of the dead, those who escaped and those charged. All but one of them, their visiting grandmother, were born and grew up in Huddersfield. Their names tell us that they were of south Asian descent.  I wish I could believe that the omission of mention of the race of both victims and perpetrators meant that this was not seen as important, that it was a reflection of a society where people are valued equally, but I don’t.  The names say enough, the names tell us ‘other’, the names tell us Muslim.  But the lack of mention of sex fails to locate this act within the context of men’s violence against women and girls.

We need to name male violence against women and girls. Identifying trends and making links is important, it helps us to identify causes and therefore – where there is the will – the potential to find solutions and create change. Men’s fatal violence against women and girls crosses boundaries of race, religion and culture but immediately when race or religion is a factor in violence, it is identified. Why isn’t it the same with sexist and misogynistic murder? Could it be that it is only when the primary aggressors are those acting against, not reinforcing the dominant ideology, that the majority make links?

1 Tayyaba Batool, 13, Rabiah Batool, 10, Ateeqa Nawaz, 6, Aneesa Nawaz, 2, Najeeba Nawaz, 6 months, their mother Nafeesa Aziz, 35, and their uncle Mohammed ateeq-ur-Rehman, 18, their grandmother, Zaib-un-Nisa, 54.


Stacey Hyde: A frightened 17-year-old

Stacey Hyde

In April this year, John Butler, 62, went to the flat of his former partner, Pauline Butler, 61, and stabbed her.  In his trial, Butler told the court that he couldn’t remember how the knife had ended up in his hand and that he had fallen after she had pushed him, causing him to accidentally injure her. The court heard that Pauline Butler had previously threatened him with a knife.  Of course, being dead, she wasn’t able to challenge his version of events.   Pauline had been found with a number of knife wounds to her neck, chest and back.  As judge, Mr Justice Edis pointed out, had Butler not wanted Pauline to die, he would have called an ambulance, rather than remove and wash the knife, take her dog to his home, drink a beer and smoke a cigar. Butler was found guilty of manslaughter, not murder, due to loss of control, and sentenced to jail for seven years in jail.

Sybil Sibthorpe was 80 years-old in May, 2012, when she was found in her garden with “significant” head injuries after being beaten by her former tenant Lee Grainger, 41.  Grainger pleaded guilty to manslaughter on the grounds of diminished responsibility and was sentenced to 12 and-a-half years. According to the judge, Grainger was “a significant danger to the public”.

Adrian Muir, 51, killed Pamela Jackson, 55, by beating or kicking her head with such force that she suffered fractures to her skull and bleeding to her brain. He then drove over 120 miles before digging a grave in moorland and burying her with a bunch of flowers in a Tesco carrier bag. Muir initially denied murder and claimed he had been framed.  He posted fake entries from her Facebook page suggesting she was still alive. It took police more than two months before they found Pamela’s body in May 2013.  Muir’s fingerprint was found on the carrier bag inside her grave, and a CCTV camera caught him cleaning the back of his car in a supermarket car park.  He later claimed that she had attacked him, “like a bloody devil”.  Muir was jailed for 18 years, not for murder, but manslaughter.

Felipe Lopes, 26, had a six-year police history of violent assaults on women before being jailed for 12 weeks in 2012 after tracking down and assaulting an ex-girlfriend whom he had previously stabbed. Within two weeks of his release, in January 2013, he had beaten 23-year-old Anastasia Voykina to death with a hockey stick. Before he killed her, neighbours had called the police to her flat on two occasions, because, they said, his attacks on her were so severe, the building was vibrating. Judge Richard Marks said to Lopes: “There is no doubt in my mind you intended to kill her. You are and will remain for an indefinite time a significantly dangerous man, particularly to women.” Lopes pleaded guilty to manslaughter, not murder, on the grounds of diminished responsibility because of his mental health problems.  He was jailed for a minimum term of seven years and three months.

Like Filipe Lopes, Vincent Francis had a history of violence against women.  In court it was alleged that he had assaulted his girlfriend, Holly Banwell, at least 27 times. Some of the assaults had been overhead by neighbours; it was also alleged that he had attacked a previous partner.  On 4 September, 2009, Holly  had been out with her 17-year-old friend Stacey Hyde, they  had then gone back to the flat that Holly and Vince Francis shared.  Stacey remembers waking up to hear Holly screaming but not what happened next.  A 72-year-old neighbour told police that she saw Francis trying to swing Stacey  around by her pony tail while her friend Holly looked on, screaming.  Holly Banwell called the police, telling them “…my boyfriend is beating my friend… I need the police ASAP”.  On the recorded call she is then heard saying “they are fighting”, before screaming “Stacey has a knife and has stabbed him”.  Stacey was sobbing when the police arrived, she told them “he tried to kill me…I had to help Holly…he was going to kill her…I thought he would kill me…”.

In March 2010, at the age of 18, Stacey Hyde was convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.  While awaiting trial she had been given well-intentioned but misguided advice from other prisoners affecting her responses in court and possibly, consequently, how she was viewed by the jury. The law has been changed since then too, so that loss of control caused by fear of serious violence can now be taken into account, but this wasn’t an option at the time Stacey was convicted.

Stacey is due in court to appeal her conviction on Thursday and Friday this week, the 13th and 14th November, 2014.  Since her conviction, new evidence has emerged about her mental health, for example that she had ADHD at the time of her offence, and in addition, other psychiatric diagnoses resulting from a difficult childhood.  If Stacey’s appeal is accepted, her conviction for murder will be overturned for one of manslaughter.  She has already served five years and it is possible that she will be released from custody.

Trials for murder and manslaughter are complex. Each with their own particular circumstances and it is right that those circumstances are taken into account.  I’m sure there are many reasons why Stacey’s case can’t be directly compared to those of the men I’ve mentioned above, and yet: Unlike 62-year-old John Butler who claimed he’d been attacked by Pauline Butler before he stabbed her, or 51-year-old Adrian Muir, who claimed Pamela Jackson attacked him before he beat her head and fractured her skull, a 72-year-old neighbour had witnessed Francis attacking Stacey, and Holly Banwell called the police telling them that he was beating her.  Also, unlike Muir, she didn’t lie her way through a two-month police investigation.  Like 41-year-old Lee Granger, who killed 80-year-old Sybil Sibthorpe, at 17, she was half the age of the man she killed.  But a 17-year-old young woman – in fear of her life and that of her friend –  killing a 34 year-old-man, cannot really be compared to a 41-year-old man,  described by a judge as a risk to the public,  bearing a grudge against and beating to death his 80-year-old former landlord.

Stacey was 17, legally a child, a child with a history of mental health problems and experience of sexual violence, when she killed 34-year-old Vincent Francis, a man with a history of perpetrating violence. Her claims of being assaulted by the man she killed are not unverified. She is not a risk to the public. She did not lie and deny her actions though the investigation.  She did not try to hide a body. Unlike John Butler, Lee Grainger, Adrian Muir, Filipe Lopes and many men who have killed women since she killed Vincent Francis, Stacey Hyde was found guilty of murder, not manslaughter. Stacey has never denied that she killed Vincent Francis, but she wasn’t a murderer, she was a child, a frightened child.

 Please support Justice for Women in their fight for justice for Stacey Hyde.

Why the hierarchy of dead women and girls?

Like anyone else, I was saddened to wake up to the news that a body has been found in the search for 14-year-old Alice Gross, and that her disappearance has now become a murder inquiry; similarly, I felt sickened to hear about the rape and  murder of 23-year old Hannah Witheridge, just two weeks ago.

But since Alice went missing – and in addition to Hannah – at least ten other UK women have been killed through suspected male violence.  Why don’t we all know the name of Leighann Duffy, 26, stabbed to death in Walthamstow? What about Glynis Bensley, 48, who witnesses said was pursued by two masked men on bikes before she was killed? Perhaps some people will recall the name of Pennie Davis, 47, found dead in a field, stabbed as she tended her horse.  What about Serena Hickey, Dorothy Brown, 66; Nicola Mckenzie, 37; Davinia Loynton, 59; or Lorna McCarthy, 50?

The murder of 82-year-old Palmira Silva who was beheaded in London was also front page news this month, but few were aware that she was the third woman to have been beheaded in London in less than six months, after  Tahira Ahmed, 38, in June and  Judith Nibbs, 60, in April. Was this simply because beheading is big news at the moment due to the murders of David Haines,  James Foley and Steven Sotloff?

The killer of 15-year-old Shereka Marsh, shot in Hackney earlier this year, was found guilty of manslaughter this week.  Did we all mourn the 15-year-old school-girl, described by teachers as one of their “shining stars”, on course to sit 10 GCSEs this summer?  Wasn’t being accidentally shot by your boyfriend also big news, also international news, this month?

Men’s violence against women and girls, systemic, connected, has killed at least 11 dead UK women this month.  At least 111 UK women have been killed through suspected male violence so far this year, 111 women in 272 days is one dead woman every 2.45 days.

Older, black, usually but not all, killed by men they had known and loved – their husbands, boyfriends, ex’s and sons (8 women have been killed by their sons this year, 13 last year, 16 the year before) – why don’t we care so much about these women? Young, white and blond, killed by a stranger, hold the front pages – but don’t bother to make the connections with other women killed by men; talk about anything, immigration, terrorism, tourism, guns and gangs – talk about anything except male violence against women and girls.

Innocent Victims? Isn’t that just another way of blaming women and girls for men’s violence?

The phrase “innocent victim” has re-emerged to describe Sabrina Moss – a 24-year old teacher who was shot dead in London as she celebrated her birthday in August 2013 – in British bastions of judgemental conservative journalism The Daily Mail and the Express.

It’s a phrase that came in to my consciousness when it was used to describe 16-year-old Jane MacDonald who was murdered on 26 June 1977 by being hit on the head with a hammer three times and stabbed in the chest and back around 20 times. When her face-down body was turned over by police, they found a broken bottle complete with screw-top embedded in her chest.  She was murdered by Peter Sutcliffe and was the fifth woman of thirteen that he is known to have killed.  Before her, there had been 28-year-old Wilma McCann, beaten with a hammer and stabbed to death in October 1975; 42-year-old Emily Jackson, beaten with a hammer and stabbed 52 times with a screw-driver in January 1975; Irene Richardson, 28, beaten with a hammer and stabbed and slashed with a Stanley knife in February 1977 and Patricia Atkinson, 32, beaten and clawed with a hammer and also stabbed, in April 1977.  Wilma McCann, Emily Jackson, Irene Richardson and Patricia Atkinson had not been described by the press as innocent victims.  Why? Because Jane MacDonald was the first woman known to have been murdered by Sutcliffe who was not in prostitution.  Sutcliffe himself shared this belief that prostituted women were less worthy than none prostituted women.  In his confession, referring to Jane MacDonald, he said

“The next one I did I still feel terrible about, it was the young girl Jayne MacDonald. I read recently about her father dying of a broken heart and it brought it all back to me. I realised what sort of a monster I had become. I believed at the time I did it that she was a prostitute.”


“When I saw in the papers that MacDonald was so young and not a prostitute, I felt like someone inhuman and I realised that it was a devil driving me against my will and that I was a beast.”

Leaving aside Sutcliffe’s failure to take responsibility for his actions –  blaming them on being driven by the devil, not his own violent misogyny –  the implication is clear, that beating and stabbing four prostituted women to death was something less than monstrous. He became a monster when he killed Jane, not when he had killed Wilma, Emily, Irene and Patricia.

This week, Oscar Pistorius was found not guilty of the murder of Reeva Steenkamp, the woman he killed.  State prosecutor Gerrie Nel refered to Pistorius as causing “the death of an innocent woman” and again referred to him being “convicted of a serious crime of killing an innocent woman.”  Of course, Reeva Steenkamp, in comparison to Pistorius was innocent, but surely that is almost always the case when comparing murder victims to their killers.    If not innocent, what are they? Guilty? Or perhaps somehow complicit in their own death?

Despite attempts at law reform, some women’s complicity in their own murders is still implied indeed enshrined  in British law.  Academic Adrian Howe has looked at infidelity in the sentencing of men convicted of intimate partner homicide.  She points out that  “For over 300 years, criminal courts have regarded sexual infidelity as sufficiently grave provocation as to provide a warrant, indeed a ‘moral warrant’, for reducing murder to manslaughter.”  and that whilst “ ‘sexual infidelity’ was expressly excluded as a trigger for loss of control in the new loss of control defence laid down in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009”, “sexual infidelity still has mitigating prowess” in diminished responsibility pleas, as does men’s ‘distress’ if they kill a partner who is in the process of leaving them.  This ‘distress’ could just as easily be described men’s entitlement, or their rage that their partner has the audacity to reject them and move on.  A woman’s murder is somehow less heinous, deserving a reduced plea of manslaughter or a reduced sentence, if the court accepts that something that she did contributed to a man’s choice to kill her.

Dead women get no opportunity to defend their character; but even if they could, it should not make a difference.   Victims of violence should not be graded according to their worth, the balance would inevitably be tipped to discredit those not deemed to be ‘good’ women according to a scale reflecting class-biased and sexist values of what a woman should be.  We can see this when we look at the justice system and men’s sexual violence against women.  Women are not equal in the eyes of the law. The concept of ‘lady-like’ behaviour controls, judges and stratifies; acceptable/respectable standards of woman or girlhood align with middle-class standards of conduct and appearance.  Catharine MacKinnon argued  that the law divides women along indices of consent from ‘the virginal daughter’ to ‘whorelike wives and prostitutes’ with women who meet standards closer to the former, less likely to be found to have consented to unwanted intercourse, more likely to be believed regarding rape and sexual violence. Women who are socially or educationally disadvantaged are less likely to ‘perform well’ in the criminal justice system1 and women from working-class backgrounds are more likely to refuse to adhere to the status of victim, more likely to endure/cope and more likely to minimise injury2, as victims is it we who are on trial, we who are judged and the men who attack us who benefit from our perceived innocence.  In Rotherham, Manchester, Nottingham, Oxford and beyond, we’ve seen how labelling girls as slags and troublemakers allows the men who abuse to continue to do so.

Women victims of male violence should not have unequal status under the law.  Whether we have fucked one man or woman or five hundred; whether we pay our bills though prostitution, preaching, teaching or trust funds. Our laws, written by white middle-class men, favour white middle-class men and all women victims of male violence deserve justice, not just those of us who according to some scale of judgement are deemed ‘innocent’.


1 Temkin 2002b:6

2 Skeggs, 2005:971


Who Counts?

Just women killed by men: shifting definitions and learning though Counting Dead Women

It’s over two and a half years since I unintentionally started counting dead women back in January 2012 when the year began with report after report of women killed through domestic violence. I know now, but I didn’t then, that in the first three days of 2012, eight women in the UK were killed through male violence. Three days, eight dead women: three shot, two stabbed, one strangled,  one smothered and one beaten to death through 15 blunt force trauma injuries

Eight women aged between 20 and 87, their killers aged between 19 and 48 were husbands, partners, boyfriends or ex’s; , sister’s partner, aunt’s partner, robber and grandson.  I remember the feeling of incredulity that connections weren’t being made, that dots weren’t being joined, that no-one was talking about a pattern, or at least a series of related events.

At first, I counted women killed through domestic violence, then, on March 9th 2012, Ahmad Otak stabbed and killed Samantha Sykes, 18 and Kimberley Frank, 17. Otak wasn’t the boyfriend of either of them, but of Elisa Frank, Kimberley’s sister.  After killing Kimberly and Samantha in front of Eliza, he abducted Eliza and drove to Dover in an attempt to escape to France. The murders of Samantha and Kimberley didn’t strictly fit the definition of domestic violence, but they’re absolutely about a man trying to exert power, control and coercion in his relationship. The murders of Kimberley and Samantha were no less about male violence against women that they would have been if he had been the boyfriend of one of them.

I’d never planned to start counting and I think I’d imagined that I’d stop at the end of 2012.  At the end of the year, I tried to define who I was counting and who I wasn’t using the term ‘gender related murder’.  With the start of 2013, I started a new list and kept on counting.  Slowly finding a voice through social media, particularly twitter, I started blogging early in 2013. I wrote my first piece about how I started counting and some of the things I’d learned and called it Counting Dead Women. With the term ‘gender related murder’ I was trying to express that fatal male violence against women went beyond ‘domestic violence’; that there was more to men’s sexist misogynistic murders of women than the widely used ‘Two women a week killed by partners or ex-partners’, that socially constructed gender has an influence beyond domestic violence .  I had a notion, that I now reject, that I wasn’t talking about all instances where men had killed women; and I didn’t want to be accused of exaggerating and adding women just to make the numbers higher.

So, there were some women who had been killed by men that I didn’t add to the list, for example where she’d been killed but so had a man  – my thinking ‘So, this wasn’t just sexism/misogyny’ – or one case  where the killer was an employee of the woman he murdered, ‘maybe he’d have killed his employer even if he had been a man?’  I had more questions:  Who counts as a ‘UK woman’? What about women from the UK murdered on holiday? If I counted UK women murdered overseas, should I therefore not count women who were not from the UK if they were murdered here?  What about so-called mercy killings? In a country where assisted dying is not legal, surely some people might make the choice through lack of choice.  What about girls?  When does the killing of a child become sexist?

I started thinking about and using the term Femicide ‘the killing of women because they are women’ and wrote about it here in October 2013.  But it still didn’t feel right, the term  ‘femicide’ itself doesn’t name the agent, neither does the short definition above, purportedly because women can kill women as a result of patriarchal values. Of course that’s true, yet the 123-word definition of femicide agreed at the Vienna Symposium on Femicide whilst giving some useful examples of forms that fatal violence against women can take, still didn’t name ‘male violence’ and it excluded a group of women that I’d begun to identify through my counting: older women killed by younger men in what were sometimes described as ’botched robberies’ or muggings. The level of brutality that some men used against these women, the way some targeted women and the use of sexual violence, meant to me that their murders could not be excluded. I posed that question, that in a world where sexism and misogyny are so pervasive, are all but inescapable, can a man killing a woman ever not be a sexist act?  A fatal enactment of patriarchy?

It’s September 2014 now.  Last week, on Thursday, 82-year-old Palmira Silva became at least the 100th woman in the UK to be killed through male violence this year. I say at least the 100th because I have a list of more than 10 women’s names where the circumstances of their deaths has not been made publicly available.  In the same way that the list of 107 women’s names that I’d gathered by the end of 2012 is now a list of 126 women, I expect that time will reveal women who have been killed this year, women I haven’t heard about or who I haven’t yet been able to include because information about their deaths has not been released .

Because I’m counting dead women, keeping this list, I was able to make connections that others simply wouldn’t know about.  On Thursday evening, a tweet I wrote, identifying Palmira Silva as the third women to have been beheaded in London in less than six months was trending in London. My blog had more hits in one day than it usually has in a month.  Some people heard about my list for the first time and asked questions, making me realise it was perhaps time to revisit and update my explanation of what I’m doing and why.

Why am I counting women killed through male violence? Because if we don’t name the agent, we can’t hope to identify the causes.  If we don’t reveal the extent of men’s fatal violence against women and the various forms it can take, we will never be capable of a thorough enough analysis to reduce or end it.  If the bigger picture is revealed, people can begin to see the connections.  That’s why I know that I need to keep counting dead women and campaigning for this to be done officially.

My thinking has developed and changed since January 2012.  There’s no reason that it won’t continue to do so. Not everyone likes what I’m doing or how I’m doing it. Not everyone agrees with my analysis.  Not everyone thinks women killed by men are worth of counting.

So, who counts?  Women.  Women, aged 14 years and over, women killed by men in the UK and UK women killed overseas.  Regardless of the relationship between the woman and the man who killed her; regardless of how he killed her and who else he killed at the same time; regardless of the verdict reached when the case gets to court in our patriarchally constructed justice system created by men and continually delivering anything but justice to women; regardless of what is known and not known of his motive.  Just women killed by men.

Counting Dead Women: Reviewing 2012 – How 107 dead women became 126

When I talk about why I started counting dead women, I begin with my realisation that in the first three days of 2012, seven UK women had been killed though male violence.  More than two years later, I found out it wasn’t seven women in three days, but eight.

Betty Yates, a retired teacher who was 77 years-old, was found dead at home in her house in Bewdley, Worcestershire on 4th January.  She had been beaten with a walking stick and stabbed in the head four times, two days earlier.  The knife used to kill her was still embedded in her neck.  Stephen Farrow, 48, was charged with her murder through DNA evidence matched after he murdered vicar John Suddard on 13 February.

2012 then, in the first three days of the year, eight women were killed though male violence.  Three days: 8 dead women: 3 shot, 2 stabbed, 1 strangled, 1 smothered and one beaten to death through 15 blunt force trauma injuries.

By the end of the year, I’d counted and named 107 women killed though suspected male violence, but as cases of women’s killings went to court, that number grew.  By February 2013 it was 109 women, by  the end of July it became 114, then 118.  In October 2013, I added Carole Waugh and then later Louise Evans;  in March 2014, I added Sally Ann Harrison.  May 2014, and not only is there Betty Yates but Jenny Methven, Yong Li Qui, Patricia Seddon and Eleftheria Demetriou.

Jenny Methven was 80 years-old when she was found dead on 20th February, she died through blunt force injuries to her head and body. Her skull was fractured from one side to the other with bone splinters embedded in her brain. 46-year-old William Kean has been found guilty of her murder.

Yong Li Qui, 42,  was murdered by Gang Wang, 48.  In his trial, he denied he intended to kill her or cause her really serious harm. He had beaten her head with an object so severely that her skull was fractured and her brain tissue could be seen.  She died on 25th March, a week after being attacked.

Patricia Seddon, 65, and her husband Robert, 68, were shot dead by their son Stephen. Four months earlier, he had staged a road accident and attempted to kill them by driving into a canal with them strapped in the back seats of a car.

Eleftheria Demetriou, 79, was stabbed to death by Hakim Abdillah, 38, she was killed through multiple wounds to the heart and spleen by a man she had befriended and who used to call her ‘grandma’.

I’ve written before about how I initially started counting women killed by men who were partners, ex-partners or family members: domestic violence; I’ve also looked at how femicide is a more useful but still problematic term because, whilst using patriarchal society as a context  it focuses on women killed because they are women  and not enough on toxic masculinity.

Between the five women above, two, Betty Yates and Patricia Seddon were murdered by men who also murdered a man.  I don’t know how the sex of 80 year-old Jenny Methven, 79 year-old Eleftheria Demetriou, and 77 year-old Betty, was relevant when they were killed by William Kean, 46,  Hakim Abdillah, 38 and Stephen Farrow, 48.  The age gaps between killer and victim, the inevitable differences in their strength; and the brutality of their attacks mean masculinity and power over women and misogyny, the hatred of women cannot be ruled out.   But the differences between the numbers of men who kill women (or men) to the number of women who kill women or men; and the number of men who kill their mothers (or father) to the number of women who kill a parent mean that if we want to end male violence against women, we need to look at patriarchy, sex inequality and socially constructed toxic gender for the answers.

The names of all 126 UK women killed through male violence in 2012 can be found here.